jill asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

請問幾題英文文法

請問各位高手下列幾個問題:

1.everyone agreed to John's suggestion by which we should go shoppong tomorrow.為什麼要有個by不能只寫個which代替John's suggestion嗎?

2.People have long had superstitions beliefs about forture telling.為什麼不能寫have had long因為have 後不是直接加pp嗎?

3."betwen the Pacific Ocean and the Andes lies chile, the logest and the narrowest country in the world."和"in many of his tales he used math or discussed its nature, and he was absorbed in problembs and pazzles of all sorts."為什麼都是介片開頭,第一句要倒裝,第二句不用,要怎麼分別?

4.John's struggle to make a place for himself in show business is a kind of life story about which a fascinating movie might be profuced.為什麼which前要有個about,這個about可以省嗎?直接寫which?

5.evaluation would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning.能寫relaxing atmosphere嗎?

ps請說明理由,謝謝您^^

Update:

1."which"不是關代嗎?那它不是可以連接兩個句子,為什麼還要by?

2.我第三題的意思是同樣是介片開頭(between......和in.....)為什麼第一句要寫lies chile,而第二句要寫he used...不用倒裝,要怎麼辨別?

另外補充一個題目,為什麼"I study math withMary. "如要 用"and"連接,要寫" Mary and I study math together."為什麼要多寫一個"together."

謝謝!

3 Answers

Rating
  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    版主您好:

    您的題目中有兩道是關於"關係詞"的用法.

    關係詞屬於連接詞的一種, 它與"純連接詞"的差異是:

    關係詞代表主要子句裡的"先行詞"(可以說是先行詞的分身或變形), 而它本身又在從屬子句(此處又稱"形容詞"子句, 因為用來修飾先行詞; 也稱"關係"子句, 因為由關係詞所引導)扮演某種角色(主詞, 受詞, 補語, 副詞).

    而純連接詞可能完全獨立(在兩個子句中都沒有身份), 頂多也只是在從屬子句中軋上一角, 絕沒有第二個身份.

    由您的發問推測, 您對關係詞的前三個功能已經有概念. 而第四個功能的確困擾許多學習者.

    我喜歡你去年買的這棟房子.

    I like the house which you bought last year.

    這個which代表主要子句裡的house, 而它本身又在從屬子句中作為動詞bought的受詞.

    我喜歡(這棟房子).

    你去年買(這棟房子).

    所以"這棟房子"是兩個子句之間的"關係詞", 直接套用which(=[the house])就可以.

    那如果要說:

    我喜歡你去年辦派對的這棟房子.

    如果你直接用which:

    I like the house which you threw the party last year.

    這個which仍然代表主要子句裡的house, 但是它在從屬子句的角色是什麼?

    "you threw the party last year"(你去年辦派對)這裡面已經有主詞, 動詞, 受詞, 甚至連時間副詞都有了(完整的句子結構), 還有which(關係代名詞)立足之處嗎? 沒有!

    "你去年辦派對"的完整說法應該是"你去年(在這棟房子)辦派對".

    我喜歡(這棟房子).

    你去年(在這棟房子)辦派對.

    問題是: (這棟房子)不等於(在這棟房子), 前面是名詞, 後面是"地方副詞". 它們之間有"關係", 但不"相等".

    名詞可以用關係代名詞代表(前述[the house]=[which]), 那地方副詞用什麼代表?

    The children are playing in the garden.

    The children are playing there.

    I live in this city.

    I live here.

    地方副詞(介係詞 地方)用[there/here]代表, 但是它們不是關係詞, 無法連接句子, 所以有對應的關係詞[where]. 這裡就不是關係代名詞, 而叫"關係副詞". [in the house](在這棟房子)=[where]

    所以上述的例子不能直接用which, 而要用where:

    I like the house where you threw the party last year.

    很多人喜歡說: [where]=[in which], 其實這個介係詞是隨著先行詞的特性而變化的.

    I live near the station where you got off the train.

    I live near the station at which you got off the train.

    依此類推, 表示時間的副詞用[when]=[介係詞 which]

    I don't know the day when Tom will arrive.

    I don't know the day on which Tom will arrive.

    但是副詞的含意種類廣泛, 無法用where, when,等表達的時候, 只好回到原形[副詞]=[介係詞 名詞(=which)], 這就是您的兩個句子:

    Everyone agreed to John's suggestion [by which] we should go shopping tomorrow.

    根據約翰所提而大家都同意的建議, 明天我們去血拼.

    John's struggle to make a place for himself in show business is a kind of life story [about which] a fascinating movie might be profuced.

    或許能夠以約翰在影劇圈力爭上游這樣的生命歷程為腳本來拍一部精彩的電影.

    (這是以中文語法來翻譯, 而沒有照英文的句子結構, 以求順暢)

    *注意從屬子句的結構完整, 故用關係副詞, 而不用關係代名詞.

    2007-08-16 01:39:48 補充:

    [助動詞+主動詞]的結構是英文很重要而常用的動詞用法, 而當有副詞要修飾這樣的動詞結構時, 副詞幾乎都是以放在兩者之間為最普遍:

    He did not say a word.

    Mary has always been a fan of Harrison Ford.

    It does not often rain here in summer.

    2007-08-16 01:40:08 補充:

    所以:

    People have long had superstitions beliefs about forture telling.

    也可以:

    Long have people had superstitions beliefs about forture telling.(倒裝)

    但是如果把long擺到had與superstitions之間, 不止少人用, 而且很如容易讓人把long當形容詞而與superstitions"送作堆".

    2007-08-16 01:40:23 補充:

    倒裝多半用來凸顯特殊的語氣, 而且以不及物動詞居多(但非絕對).

    In many of his tales he used math or discussed its nature,...

    之所以不能照前例倒裝, 是因為用了代名詞he, 而且是及物動詞(相對少用), 可以這樣改:

    In so many of his tales did he use math or discussed its nature,...

    鄭登聯大大說的也是正確的.

    2007-08-16 01:41:03 補充:

    [relaxed atmosphere]: 輕鬆的氣氛

    http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:r9NJWrDwNH4J:w...

    2007-08-16 01:41:14 補充:

    [relaxing atmosphere]: 讓人放鬆的氣氛

    http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:eWJqsocdLKcJ:w...

    兩者都可以用.

    2007-08-16 01:41:34 補充:

    I study math with Mary.

    =Mary and I study math together.

    瑪莉和我在一起研習數學.

    Mary and I study math.

    瑪莉和我都研習數學.

    (可能一個在教室, 一個在圖書館)

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  • lian
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    1.為什麼要有by,必須先了解兩件事:(1)文意(2)關係代名詞=連接詞+代名詞。

    Everyone agreed to John's suggestion by which we should go shopping tomorrow. 將which解開得到and...the suggestion便得下句。

    Everyone agreed to John's suggestion and, by the suggestion, we should go shopping tomorrow.

    2.基本上我完全同意版主的說法,不過在下功力不夠深厚,未能解釋為何一個形容詞會出現在那個敏感的地方。

    3.並非所有介係詞片語開頭均倒裝。先了解一個事,為何介係詞片語可以倒裝?請記住:「任何介係詞片語在句中不當形容詞,就當副詞。」而倒裝句法中最重要的兩則就是「否定副詞之倒裝」、「地方副詞之倒裝」。觀察題幹,不是地方副詞,也不是否定副詞的介係詞片語我們一般不作倒裝。

    4.請不要省略about,理同第一點。拆which得and...the life story,便得下句。只不過用about這個介係詞似乎怪了點,我比較偏用for在這裡。

    John's struggle to make a place for himself in show business is a kind of life story, and, for the life story, a fascinating movie might be profuced.(後段翻譯:而且,由於這動人的生命故事,一部誘人感人的將可能被推出。)

    5.relax作分詞用時,很少機會會用到現在分詞。

    Source(s): 參考
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  • 1 decade ago

    1.Everyone agreed to John's suggestion by which we should go shopping tomorrow.

    會有個by是因為需要有個字連接2個句子. 而且by本身是個介係詞 (preposition)

    2.People have long had superstitions beliefs about fortune telling.

    不行喔!唸起來不通順而且文法錯誤

    "have" refer to "people" 然後 "had" refer to "superstitions"

    3."Between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes lies Chile, the longest and the narrowest country in the world."和"In many of his tales he used math or discussed its nature, and he was absorbed in problems and puzzles of all sorts."

    Between跟in是介係詞,英文句子中是可以用preposition開始一個句子的.不過我不懂你的問題

    4.John's struggle to make a place for himself in show business is a kind of life story about which a fascinating movie might be produced.

    about是可以省略的,但是about是很重要的一個"代事詞"

    "about" refer to "John's life"

    5. Evaluation would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning.

    不行,relaxing是進行式. 這句子是過去式. 這樣文法不對

    Source(s): 學一輩子英文的自己
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