個題目係Pollution = 污染
- ?Lv 61 decade agoFavorite Answer
Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (chemical subtances, noise, heat, light, energy and others) into the environment which result in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resources and ecosystems, and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.
Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution controls the undesirable waste products from human consumption, industrial production, agricultural activities, mining, transportation and other sources will accumulate or disperse and degrade the natural environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimisation are more desirable than pollution control.
The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them:
Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common examples include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight.
Water pollution via surface runoff, leaching to groundwater, liquid spills, wastewater discharges, eutrophication and littering.
Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Radioactive contamination, added in the wake of 20th-century discoveries in atomic physics. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.)
Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste.
Thermal Pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence.
Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions; however, Canada is the number two country, ranked per capita. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry.Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution