Lebanon people......I need some help?
Can you please tell me what type of government you have & can you give me some understanding of the power base behind it....
This is a serious question for an assignment......
A young friend of ours is doing an assignment on a country with a national struggle. She has chosen Lebanon....all help will be useful .
- Anonymous1 decade agoBest Answer
Here you go:
Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy in which the people constitutionally have the right to change their government. However, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, civil war precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years. Parliament, in turn, is tasked to elect a new president every 6 years. A presidential election scheduled for the autumn of 2004 was pre-empted by a parliamentary vote to extend the sitting president's term in office by three years. The president and parliament choose the prime minister. Political parties may be formed. However, what political parties do exist are weak and mostly based on sectarian interests.
Since the emergence of the post-1943 state, national policy has been determined largely by a relatively restricted group of traditional regional and sectarian leaders. The 1943 national pact, an unwritten agreement that established the political foundations of modern Lebanon, allocated political power on an essentially confessional system based on the 1932 census. Until 1990, seats in parliament were divided on a 6-to-5 ratio of Christians to Muslims (with Druze counted as Muslims). With the Ta'if Agreement, the ratio changed to half and half. Positions in the government bureaucracy are allocated on a similar basis. Indeed, gaining political office is virtually impossible without the firm backing of a particular religious or confessional group. The pact also allocated public offices along religious lines, with the top three positions in the ruling "troika" distributed as follows:
The presidency is reserved for a Maronite Christian;
The Prime Minister, a Sunni Muslim, and
The president of the Chamber of Deputies, a Shi'a Muslim.
Efforts to alter or abolish the confessional system of allocating power have been at the center of Lebanese politics for decades. Those religious groups most favored by the 1943 formula sought to preserve it, while those who saw themselves at a disadvantage sought either to revise it after updating key demographic data or to abolish it entirely. Nonetheless, many of the provisions of the national pact were codified in the 1989 Ta'if Agreement, perpetuating sectarianism as a key element of Lebanese political life.
Although moderated somewhat under Ta'if, constitutionally, the president has a strong and influential position. The president has the authority to promulgate laws passed by the Chamber of Deputies, to issue supplementary regulations to ensure the execution of laws, and to negotiate and ratify treaties.
The Chamber of Deputies is elected by adult suffrage (majority age is 21) based on a system of proportional representation for the various confessional groups. Political blocs are usually based on confessional and local interests or on personal/family allegiance rather than on left/right policy orientations.
The parliament traditionally has played a significant role in financial affairs, since it has the responsibility for levying taxes and passing the budget. It also exercises political control over the cabinet through formal questioning of ministers on policy issues and by requesting a confidence debate.
Lebanon's judicial system is based on the Napoleonic Code. Juries are not used in trials. The Lebanese court system has three levels--courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. There also is a system of religious courts having jurisdiction over personal status matters within their own communities, e.g., rules on such matters as marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
Lebanese political institutions often play a secondary role to highly confessionalized personality-based politics. Powerful families also still play an independent role in mobilizing votes for both local and parliamentary elections. Nonetheless, a lively panoply of domestic political parties, some even predating independence, still exists. The largest are all confessional based. The Phalange, National Bloc, National Liberal Party, Lebanese Forces and Free Patriotic Movement (FPM) are overwhelmingly Christian parties. Amal and Hezbollah are the main rivals for the organized Shi'a vote, and the PSP (Progressive Socialist Party) is the leading Druze party. In the recent parliamentary elections, an anti-Syrian opposition coalition ("March 14") emerged, led by Sa'ad Hariri's predominantly Sunni Future Movement and allied with Druze leader Jumblatt, the Qornet Shehwan coalition of center-right Christian politicians, Samir Geagea's mostly Maronite Lebanese Forces, and Elias Attallah's Democratic Left secular movement. In addition to domestic parties, there are branches of pan-Arab secular parties (Ba'ath, socialist and communist parties) that were active in the 1960s and throughout the period of civil war.
There are differences both between and among Muslim and Christian parties regarding the role of religion in state affairs. There is a very high degree of political activism among religious leaders across the sectarian spectrum. The interplay for position and power among the religious, political, and party leaders and groups produces a political tapestry of extraordinary complexity.
In the past, the system worked to produce a viable democracy. The civil war resulted in greater segregation across the confessional spectrum. Whether in political parties, places of residence, schools, media outlets, even workplaces, there is a lack of regular interaction across sectarian lines to facilitate the exchange of views and promote understanding.
Some Christians favor political and administrative decentralization of the government, with separate Muslim and Christian sectors operating within the framework of a confederation. Muslims, for the most part, prefer a unified, central government with an enhanced share of power commensurate with their larger share of the population. The trajectory of the Ta'if Agreement points towards a non-confessional system, but there has been no real movement in this direction in the decade and a half since Ta'if.
- tamarindwalkLv 51 decade ago
Aside from what you may hear elsewhere, the Lebanese government is democratically elected.
The president is selected from the Maronite Christian sect.
The prime minister is selected from amongst the Sunni Muslims.
The speaker of parliament is selected from the Shiite Muslims.
The power base is basically from the various religious sects, each of which has its leaders. I am told these leaders comprise 7 families, but one never really can tell.
The largest single sect would appear at this time to be the Shiites - and they are principally represented by Hizbollah which makes it a major political force in Lebanon. Hizbollah, although marked as a terrorist organization by the Americans, participates openly and fully in Lebanese politics. Another major power block are the Druze. And then the others all are rather minor and small.
It really requires a lot more reading on your part - and it's complicated at best. But it is, indeed interesting.
- jaLv 43 years ago
BYBLOS. climate there is heat and there are a lot of coastline inns like Eddesands or Bay 183 (Voile Bleu). Byblos, as you would be conscious of is an exceedingly historic city and you may take excursions around the fort or do some procuring in the previous Souk the place they sell issues like jewerly and different issues yet frequently paintings. recently, Byblos has outfitted some great restaurents and golf equipment you would be attracted to going to. i became staring at a trip instruct on Lebanon and that they suggested Byblos is the restaurent capital of Lebanon, so which you will possibly desire to think of the nightlife and the scrumptious ingredients. the superb place to consume is possibly alongside the Mina. Tip: in case you have on no account been in Lebanon, i could propose taking taxis using fact we Lebanese are loopy drivers! HaHaHa LOL! PEACE!
- Anonymous1 decade ago
Hi Aussie! What's up? you doing an assignment for whom? nosey minds want to know.
I love when people say 'serious question'. it just makes me want to be the opposite.
I don't have an answer to your question, just wasting your time =)
- How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer.
- 1 decade ago
hi aussie, all the lebanese people must b on a coffee break cos they arnt answereing my question either, lol
- BélierLv 51 decade ago
Sorry Aussie. Can't help u in this one...
- Anonymous1 decade ago
I think GB said it all well.