! = factorial, hard to explain so i'll give an example.
5! is 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
8! is 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
It gets more complicated if you're doing things like series but I'm assuming that if you don't know what it means you aren't interested in that.
^ is just a way to write something that would normally be superscript (like an exponent).
5^3 is five cubed
∑ = the greek letter sigma, which in math means summation, basically you do the sum of all numbers that meet a criterion that you specify.
∑(n=1,n=5) (5n) [I guess thats how you would write it in a computer] would be 5(1) + 5(2) + 5(3) + 5(4) + 5(5)
∏ = the greek letter pi, which in math is basically the same thing as the sigma except it's a product and not a sum.
∫ = integral, hard to explain if you've never taken calculus so accept this simple explination. If you had the equation y = x and you wanted to find the area under the line you would integrate x (it would look like ∫y = ∫xdx, sometimes you see ∫y as Y)
On that note, the opposite of this (which you should learn first actually) is the derivative. If we have y = x^2 than the derivative of this function will tell us what the slope is at any given point. It would look like this, dy/dx = 2x
as for others, there are a lot. A whole lot.
Just ones that I can think of off the top of my head:
epsilon(looks like an E): defines a set of numbers I believe (for every epsilon greater than zero there exists a delta greater than zero. . . [definition of a limit])
limit: the number that a graph converges to as you get arbitrarily close to a point from the left and from the right.
>, < = greater than, less than
log = again hard to explain so here is an example.
5^y = x
y = log(5)x
I was taught to think of it this way, y is the exponent i need to raise by base 5 to to get x as an answer.
ln = same as log except it is base e
e is just a constant like lower case pi.
sin, cos, tan, sec, csc, cot, and all of their inverse and hyperbolic functions = take a trig course.
that should be plenty to get you started.