what is population?

i need to know very specifically and clearly ....

I'm talking about population in terms of "'Economics ""

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  • 1 decade ago
    Best Answer

    In sociology and biology a population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or space, usually measured by a census.

    Populations are studied, in particular, in a branch of ecology known as population biology, and in population genetics. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive behaviour, and growth of a population are studied. In biology, an isolated population denotes farty breeding group whose members breed mostly or solely among themselves, usually as a result of physical isolation, although biologically they could breed with any members of the species. If there are several completely or nearly completely isolated populations in the global population of a taxon, these are called subpopulations. The metapopulation is a network of subpopulations in a given area (which may be global), where the individuals of the various subpopulations are able to cross uninhabitable areas of the region. Biological dispersal is one of the key elements affecting such populations; if dispersal is sufficiently low for a prolonged period of time, speciation is likely to be a consequence.

    Demography is the study of human populations. Its three central foci are the processes of fertility, mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the labor force, and family planning. Various aspects of human behavior in populations are also studied in sociology, economics, and geography. Study of populations is almost always governed by the laws of probability, and the conclusions of the studies may thus not always be applicable to some individuals. This odd factor may be reduced by statistical means, but such a generalization may be too vague to imply anything. Demography is used extensively in marketing, which relates to economic units, such as retailers, to potential customers. For example, a coffee shop that wants to sell to a younger audience, looks at the demographics of an area to be able to appeal to this younger audience.

    Population pyramid

    Main article: Population pyramid

    Population pyramid showing steady mortality in each age group.The age and gender distribution of a population within a given nation or region is commonly represented by means of a population pyramid. This is a triangular distribution with the portions of the population along the horizontal X-axis and the 5-year age groups (cohorts) along the vertical Z-axis. Male population is shown to the left of the vertical axis and female to the right.

    Showing the age structure of the population in this way allows some broad inferences about age-related mortality rates to be made. Nations with low infant mortality and high longevity will display a more rectangular shape as most of the population lives to old age. Other countries have a more pyramidal shape with a wide base, reflecting higher infant mortality and greater risk of early death.

    [edit] Population growth

    Main article: Population growth

    Population growth is change in population over time. It also can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. The term population growth can technically refer to any species, but almost always refers to humans, and it often used informally for the more specific demographic term population growth rate, and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the population of the world.

    [edit] Population decline

    Main article: Population decline

    The population of Ireland since 1500, showing a 100-year population decline caused by the Great Irish Famine of 1844.Population decline is a decrease in a region's population. It can be caused by sub-replacement fertility, heavy emigration, or more dramatically disease, famine, or war. In the past, population decline was mostly caused by disease. The Black Death in Europe and the arrival of Old World diseases to the Americas all caused massive population declines.

    In biology, population decline of a species is usually described as a result of gradually worsening environmental factors, such as prolonged drought or loss of inhabitable areas for the studied species. These, or other factors, may lead to a small population, in which case genetic factors may become dominant in the survival, or extinction of a population.

    Under-population is recognized when there are more resources in an area (for example, food, energy and minerals) than can be used by the people living there. Hence, the maximum human potential of that area is not realized as the resources are not fully exploited. Countries like Canada and Australia can export the surplus of food, energy, and mineral resources, have high incomes, good living conditions and level of technology and immigration.

    Some rural areas close to major cities in advanced countries such as the UK are under-populated due to outward migration. In the UK, the Southwest Wales and the highlands of Scotland are less densely populated compared to the rest of the country. This has also happened in older declining industrial areas and the outward movement or migration has been due to lower wages and unemployment. This phenomenon results in a decline in a population. With fewer people, there is a decrease in demands for services. The lower level of services therefore sometimes encourages further outward migration.

    However, when making comparisons on a global scale, there does not seem to be any direct correlation between population density and over- or under-population. For example, Brazil is 'over-populated' with two people per square kilometer, whereas portions of California may have further carrying capacity with over 600 people per square kilometer. Therefore, this is related to the amount of available resources. Similarly, population density is not necessarily related to the GDP per capita. The Netherlands and Germany, for example, both have a high GDP per capita and a high population density whereas Canada and Australia have a high GDP per capita and a low population density, while Bangladesh has low GDP per capita and a high population density, etc.

    The balance of population and resources within a country may be uneven. For example, a country may have a population, which is too great for one resource such as energy, yet too small to use fully a second such as food supply.

    Various attempts to address population decline have been made:

    Improving communication networks and transport facilities makes remote places more accessible. This strategy was used in developing countries like Nigeria and Tanzania where modern railway networks were established, but these attempts were not very successful.

    Establishment of new capital cities, new towns, or development growth points. For example, Brazil has a population imbalance between the coastal parts from east and south and the rest of the country. Brasilia, the new capital was created in the 1960s in the country's geographical center to attract people into the North and Center-West regions, but this had limited effect, as most of these unpopulated areas are occupied by large forests and swamps.

    Regional development programs. In Brazil, the interior improvement of transport networks and development of secondary growth points and rural development have all been enhanced to attract more people and discourage out-migration. The standard of living in such regions is expected to gradually improve due to improved resource utilization.

    Pronatalist policies providing tax incentives, paid maternity leaves, daycare, or other benefits to families to bear more children. Such policies have been tried, with mixed success, in Western Europe in recent years.

    [edit] Population control

    Main article: Population control

    Population control is the practice of curtailing population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. Surviving records from Ancient Greece document the first known examples of population control. These include the colonization movement, which saw Greek outposts being built across the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins to accommodate the excess population of individual states. An important example of mandated population control is China's one-child policy, in which having more than one child is made extremely unattractive. This has led to allegations that practices like infanticide, forced abortions, and forced sterilization are used as a result of the policy.

    It is helpful to distinguish between fertility control as individual decision-making and population control as a governmental or state-level policy of regulating population growth. Fertility control may occur when individuals or couples or families take steps to decrease or to regulate the timing of their own child-bearing. In Ansley Coale's oft-cited formulation, three preconditions for a sustained decline in fertility are: (1) acceptance of calculated choice (as opposed to fate or chance or divine will) as a valid element in fertility, (2) perceived advantages from reduced fertility, and (3) knowledge and mastery of effective techniques of control.[2] In contrast to a society with natural fertility, a society that desires to limit fertility and has the means to do so may use those means to delay childbearing, space childbearing, or stop childbearing. Delaying sexual intercourse (or marriage), or the adoption of natural or artificial means of contraception are most often an individual or family decision, not a matter of a state policy or societal-wide sanctions. On the other hand, individuals who assume some sense of control over their own fertility can also accelerate the frequency or success of child-bearing through planning.

    At the societal level, declining fertility is almost an inevitable result of growing secular education of women . However, the exercise of moderate to high levels of fertility control does not necessarily imply low fertility rates. Even among societies that exercise substantial fertility control, societies with an equal ability to exercise fertility control (to determine how many children to have and when to bear them) may display widely different levels of fertility (numbers of children borne) associated with individual and cultural preferences for the number of children or size of families.[3]

    In contrast to fertility control, which is mainly an individual-level decision, governments may attempt to exercise population control by increasing access to means of contraception or by other population policies and programs.[4] The idea of "population control" as a governmental or societal-level regulation of population growth does not require "fertility control" in the sense that it has been defined above, since a state can affect the growth of a society's population even if that society practices little fertility control. It's also important to embrace policies favoring population increase as an aspect of population control, and not to assume that states want to control population only by limiting its growth. To stimulate population growth, governments may support not only immigration but also pronatalist policies such as tax benefits, financial awards, paid work leaves, and childcare to encourage the bearing of additional children.[5] Such policies have been pursued in recent years in France and Sweden, for example. With the same goal of increasing population growth, on occasion governments have sought to limit the use of abortion or modern means of birth control. An example was Romania's 1966 ban on access to contraception and abortion on demand.

    In ecology, population control is on occasions considered to be done solely by predators, diseases, parasites, and environmental factors. At many times human effects on animal and plant populations are also considered. See also [2]. Migrations of animals may be seen as a natural way of population control, for the food on land is more abundant on some seasons. The area of the migrations' start is left to reproduce the food supply for large mass of animals next time around. See also immigration.

    [edit] World population

    A crowded street in Japan, a country with a high population density.Main article: World population

    According to estimates published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion (6,500,000,000) on February 25, 2005, at 7:15 p.m. Western Standard Time. On October 18, 2012 at 4:36 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, the Earth will be home to 7 billion. The United Nations Population Fund designated October 12, 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached six billion. This was about 12 years after world population reached five billion, in 1987. However, given that the population of some countries, such as Nigeria, is not even known to the nearest million, such precise timings are essentially meaningless.

    In 2007 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will likely surpass 9 billion in 2050.[6]

    [edit] Countries by Population

    Main article: List of countries by population

    About 4 billion of the world's 6.5 billion people live in Asia. Six of the world's ten largest countries by population are in Asia.

    World population and countries with more than 100 million people Rank Country Population Density

    (people/ km²)

    — World 6,591,444,000 43

    1 China 1,317,844,000 136

    2 India 1,125,000,000 328

    3 United States 301,574,000 30

    4 Indonesia 222,781,000 126

    5 Brazil 190,000,000 22

    6 Pakistan 164,000,000 202

    7 Bangladesh 149,900,000 1,002

    8 Russia 142,800,000 8

    9 Nigeria 131,530,000 139

    10 Japan 127,000,000 337

    11 Mexico 107,000,000 54

  • Anna
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    1

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    pop·u·la·tion (pŏp'yə-lā'shən)

    n.

    All of the people inhabiting a specified area.

    The total number of such people.

    The total number of inhabitants constituting a particular race, class, or group in a specified area.

    The act or process of furnishing with inhabitants.

    Ecology- All the organisms that constitute a specific group or occur in a specified habitat.

    Statistics- The set of individuals, items, or data from which a statistical sample is taken. Also called universe.

    Courtesy of dictionary.com

  • 5 years ago

    If we talk about population in terms of "Economics" I think the definition by World Bank would be useful.

    According to World Bank definition total population of the country includes all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship – except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.

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  • PipU2
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or space, usually measured by a census.

  • 4 years ago

    what ispopulation growth?

  • 4 years ago

    As the world populace is developing consistently, the quantity of Destitute or Homeless individuals are expanding as well. Indeed, even the populace is high, so much that the Human Rights Commission on Human Rights has assembled a main ten urban areas with to a great degree high desperate populaces. These individuals are missing of urgent essentials of life and don't even have the suitable living spot. There are numerous urban areas on the planet where individuals are living as a Homeless and spend their life, living in parks, mulling over seats, trails, or left area. This down and out populace receives the demonstrations like asking, eating from the extra nourishment and offering the rescue things. This is the normal circumstance which you will discover in the main ten urban areas with to a great degree high destitute populaces. Discussing present day city or whatever other city, the issue of the destitute populace is in each general public. Here is the rundown of top town urban areas with to a great degree high destitute populaces are:

    1-Manila, Philippines: alone in the Philippines, there are 1.2 million vagrants in the Philippines who are destitute. The quantity of vagrants living in Manila is 70,000. The 22.8 million living in the ghettos and they are for the most part included in the asking or selling. The destitution I another issue in the city. This makes this city to make into the main ten urban areas with greatly high down and out populaces' rundown.

    2-Moscow, Russia: According to the unpleasant appraisal, there are 10,000 to 50,000 vagrants living in the Moscow, just. There are out and out 5 million vagrants living in Russia. There are no fitting activities by the legislature as the number is developing with each passing day. This is the reason; this city is in the main ten urban areas with amazingly high destitute populaces.

    3-Indianapolis, Indiana: This city has the populace make a go at disturbing vagrants expanding with each passing year. However, the previous chairman of the Indianapolis city. As indicated by an assessment the quantity of penniless individuals is no less than 15,000 for every year in the city. This is the reason; the specialists tally it into the main ten urban communities with to a great degree high destitute populaces.

    4-Chicago, Illinois: The quantity of down and out individuals is boosting consistently. The individuals are worried that toward the end of year, the individuals living in the city and living as the homeless people will develop. The city is in the rundown of main ten urban communities with to a great degree high destitute populaces.

    5-Athens, Greece: the crumbling money related state of the city has diminished the living state of the individuals and there are various 20,000 vagrants living in the city. 9,000 individuals are just from Athens who are destitute The legislature is not taking any legitimate activities to end it hence, this city is incorporated in the main ten urban areas with greatly high destitute populaces.

    6-Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: In simply a year ago, there were 2,500 down and out individuals living in the Rio De Janeiro. The deserted individuals are living in the city and this is the reason that this city is incorporated in the main ten urban areas with greatly high destitute populaces. These individuals are living in the city furthermore included in road criminal acts.

    7-Rome, Italy: the reason that Rome is in the main ten urban communities with a greatly high destitute populace is that there are 17,000 penniless individuals living in the Italy out of which 7,000 are just from the city of Rome.

    8-San Francisco, USA: This city has another most noteworthy number of populaces living in the city. Very nearly 3,000 to 5,000 individuals are living in the city and they are not prepared to live in the sanctuaries given by the USA government. Indicate this number, the aggregate number of destitute populace is 10,000 in the San Francisco. This city is additionally introduced in the main ten urban communities with to a great degree high destitute populaces.

    9-Budapest, Hungary: in the rundown of main ten urban areas 6th high destitute populace, the most astounding number of vagrants is distant from everyone else living in the Budapest which is 10,000. The legislature is making stern move to destroy it and there are very nearly 6,000 individuals who are living in the Budapest just.

    10-Mumbai, India: The circumstance of vagrants is exceptionally concerning as the individuals are living on anyplace they discover space. There are 25,000 vagrants living in the city of Mumbai. Altogether, there are 23 million down and out individuals living in India. Mumbai is additionally in the main ten urban communities with greatly high home destitute populaces.

    Every one of these urban areas which are incorporated in the main ten urban communities with greatly high destitute populace are attempting to conquer the issue of vagrants by taking activities. The administration of main ten urban areas with a to a great degree high destitute populace is drawing nearer these individuals by giving those employments, havens or living recompense, however the populace still appears to develop in the most recent couple of years. Some are effective at it, yet some are making a decent attempt.

    This is additionally a component that the majority of the vagrants decline to live in the havens gave by the administration because of their mental issues as well. It appears that main ten urban communities with to a great degree high dejected populaces is managing the vagrants as well as managing the issues like mental issues amongst this populace. The worldwide group of human rights likewise helps these nations and city governments to conquer the issue confronted by these main ten urban areas with to a great degree high destitute populaces. The outcomes are not much unmistakable, but rather the main ten urban areas with amazingly high destitute populace are making a decent attempt to battle with it.

    The development in populace is another issue too for these main ten urban communities with to a great degree high destitute populaces. Yet, we ought not overlook that those individuals who have originated from different urban areas to these metropolitan urban communities, searching for occupation, living, and necessities are additionally the reason that number of the destitute populace is expanding in them. This is the thing that makes them to land in the main ten urban areas with to a great degree high destitute populaces. The social orders and the skilled populace additionally help these individuals to carry on with an ordinary and conscious life, the procedure is proceeding with however it will be requiring significant investment for these urban communities to leave the main ten urban communities with to a great degree high dejected populaces.

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