The answers here are partially right- so I will try to give a general overview of the major books.
First, you must realise that Judaism has two sets of law, the written law and the oral law- both given at the same time to Moses when he was on mount Sinai. the written law is the Torah- also known as the Chamishei sifrei Torah or chamishei sifrei Moshe, the Five books of the Torah or the Five Books of Moses. These are the ones you are familiar with as the Pentateuch at the start of the bible.
The rest of the written law is contained in Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings)- these three combine to form the Tanach - or what non-Jews call the Old Testament.
The writtne law end sthere- and we move onto the mishnah (oral law). The Mishnah was written down shortly after the destruction of the Second Temple as the Sanhedrin was scared it would be forgotten or altered as the exile deepened. The Rabbis of the Mishnah are called the Amoraim (literally those who say). After the Mishnah was written down, further commentaries were added. These were collected and written down in the Gemorrah. The Rabbis of this period are called the Tannaim (Teachers) as they taught in the names of the Amoraim. These were then collected (the Mishnah followed by its Gemorrahs) into the Talmud. The next generation of Rabbis were the Rishonim(literally the first ones).
As the volume of work grew, the Rishonim writing their own commentaries on the Mishnah adn gemorrah- with peopel writing commentaries ont eh commentaries, it became more and more difficult for anyone other than a few select scholars to really understand the volume of work and how best to apply the law.
To this end, Ramabam (Rabbi moshe Maimonides) wrote the Yad Chazakah, often referred to as the Yad as an abbreviated version which gave the law, without all the attendant commentaries. Later, Rabbi Ya'akov Ben Saher (The Ba'al Haturim) wrote the Tir which summarised the Yad and gave additional commentaries. Later on, Rabbi Yosef Caro wrote the Shulchan Aruch (literally "The Set Table") which further codified and clarified the work done by the Rambam and Ba'al Haturim. Rabbi Moshe Isserles (the Rema) added his glosses to Rav Yosef Caro's work- and the Shulchan Aruch became the standard understanding of the halachah. It was also deemed the last work of the Rishonim- and the Rabbis since then are known as the Acharonim (literally the ones who come after).
Today, the Shulchan Aruch is still utilised, along with various commentaries and elaborations on it.