- 雪人Lv 41 decade agoFavorite Answer
1.The Seven Last Words of Christ (Die sieben letzten Worte unseres Erlösers am Kreuze) is a classical composition by Joseph Haydn, featuring seven meditations on the last words of Jesus Christ, commissioned in 1787 for the Good Friday service at the Grotto Santa Cueva near Cádiz in southern Spain.
"Some fifteen years ago I was requested by a canon of Cádiz to compose instrumental music on the seven last words of Our Savior on the Cross. It was customary at the Cathedral of Cádiz to produce an oratorio every year during Lent, the effect of the performance being not a little enhanced by the following circumstances. The walls, windows, and pillars of the church were hung with black cloth, and only one large lamp hanging from the center of the roof broke the solemn darkness. At midday, the doors were closed and the ceremony began. After a short service the bishop ascended the pulpit, pronounced the first of the seven words (or sentences) and delivered a discourse thereon. This ended, he left the pulpit and fell to his knees before the altar. The interval was filled by music. The bishop then in like manner pronounced the second word, then the third, and so on, the orchestra following on the conclusion of each discourse. My composition was subject to these conditions, and it was no easy task to compose seven adagios lasting ten minutes each, and to succeed one another without fatiguing the listeners; indeed, I found it quite impossible to confine myself to the appointed limits."
Originally these seven meditations on the Last Words (culled from the various gospels) were for a full classical orchestra; as well as the actual "musical discourse" Haydn added an "Introduzione" and, at the end, a "Terremoto" or earthquake, after Matthew 28:2. Much of the work is consolatory and meditative, but this last movement introduces a very different element of supernatural intervention: Haydn asks the orchestra to play “Presto e con tutta la forza,” and it closes with the unprecedented dynamic of fortississimo (triple forte).
2.The Symphony No. 6 in D major (Hoboken 1/6) is an early symphony written by Joseph Haydn and the first written after Haydn had joined the Eszterházy court. It is the first of three that are characterised by unusual virtuoso writing across the orchestral ensemble. It is popularly known as Le Matin (Morning).
Haydn wrote this, his first symphonic work for his new employer Prince Nikolaus Eszterházy, in the spring of 1761, shortly after joining the court. The Eszterházys maintained in permanent residence an excellent chamber orchestra and with his first contribution for it in the symphonic genre, Haydn fully exploited the talents of the players. In this, Haydn was consciously drawing on the familiar tradition of the concerto grosso, exemplified by the works of Antonio Vivaldi, Giuseppe Tartini, and Tomaso Albinoni then much in vogue at courts across Europe. All three symphonies (nos. 6, 7 and 8) feature extensive solo passages for the wind, horn and strings, including rare solo writing for the double bass and bassoon in the third movement. The work is scored for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, horns, timpani, continuo (harpsichord) and strings.
It has been commonly suggested that Haydn's motivation was to curry favour both with his new employer (by making reference to a familiar and popular tradition) and, perhaps more importantly, with the players upon whose goodwill he depended. Typically during this period, players who performed challenging solo passages or displayed unusual virtuosity received financial reward. By highlighting virtually all of the players in this regard, Haydn was, literally, spreading the wealth.Source(s): 其實有好多都出名, 你去 wikipedia睇下啦
- 1 decade ago
Franz Joseph Haydn (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".
The Symphony No. 94 in G major (Hoboken 1/94) is the second of the so-called twelve London symphonies (numbers 93-104) written by Joseph Haydn. It is usually called by its nickname, the Surprise Symphony. The work is among the most popular of Haydn's symphonies and is frequently performed and recorded...
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Joseph Haydn's Opus 76 string quartets, composed between the years of 1786 and 1787, were commissioned by and dedicated to Count Joseph Erdody. The Opus, which consists of six quartets, marks the last complete set of quartets that Haydn composed. At this time of the commission, Haydn was employed at the court of Prince Nicolaus Esterházy II, where he was working on his yearly mass (music) for Princess Maria Hermenegild Esterházy as well as his monumental oratorio, The Creation.
Although the quartets were completed by 1797, proven by documented accounts of visitors hearing Haydn perform these quartets in early 1797, they were not published until 1799. Letter correspondences between Haydn and his publishers reveal that there was confusion regarding the release of his quartets; the composer promised a London publication, Messrs. Longman Clementi & Co., first publishing rights, but a lack of communication with the firm led Haydn to worry that a Vienna publication might accidentally release the complete set of quartets first, causing him to lose money from London....
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