Critical Thinking

Do you have any example of Critical Thinking?

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  • John
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
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    [edit] Critical thinking in the classroom

    The key to seeing the significance of critical thinking in the classroom is in understanding the significance of critical thinking in learning. To learn is to think. To think poorly is to learn poorly. To think well is to learn well. All content, to be learned, must be intellectually constructed. To learn the content of history, I must engage myself in the process of thinking historically.

    There are two phases to the learning of content. The first occurs when learners construct in their minds the basic ideas, principles, theories that are inherent in that content. The second occurs when learners effectively use those ideas, principles, and theories as they become relevant in learners’ lives. Good teachers cultivate critical thinking (intellectually engaged thinking) at every stage of learning. This process of intellectual engagement is at the heart of the Oxford and Cambridge tutorials. The tutor questions the students, often in a Socratic manner. Here are some typical Socratic questions:

    What do you mean by_______________?

    How did you come to that conclusion?

    What was said in the text?

    What is the source of your information?

    What is the source of information in the report?

    What assumption has led you to that conclusion?

    Suppose you are wrong? What are the implications?

    Why did you make that inference? Is another one more consistent with the data?

    Why is this issue significant?

    How do I know that what you are saying is true?

    What is an alternate explanation for this phenomenon?

    Of course, there are many other possible Socratic questions. The key is that the teacher who fosters critical thinking fosters reflectiveness in students by asking questions that stimulate thinking essential to the construction of knowledge.

    Each discipline adapts its use of critical thinking concepts and principles. The core concepts are always there, but they are embedded in subject specific content. In sound instruction intellectual engagement is central. All students must do their own thinking, their own construction of knowledge. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject.

    In the UK school system, the syllabus offers Critical thinking as a subject which 16-18 year olds can take as an A-Level. Under the OCR exam board, students can sit two exam papers: "Credibility of Evidence" and "Assessing/Developing Argument". The exam tests candidates not on particular information they have learned during the course, but on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity. The full advanced GCE is now available and, though very challenging, is extremely useful for degree courses in politics, philosophy, history or theology (to name but a few), providing the skills required for critical analysis that are useful, for example, in biblical study.

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