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Lv 7
? asked in 科學及數學地理學 · 1 decade ago

微氣候問題

什麽是微氣候?

2 Answers

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  • :0
    Lv 6
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    微氣候

    · Rudolf Geiger 教授在1965年定義為

    · 接近地表的氣候

    · 換言之極為大多數地表生物〈包括植物與動物〉生活空間的氣象變化。微氣候具有隨時空改變

    · 這種每日氣象或每季氣候的變化即極端的氣候發生,帶動了微氣象及微氣候的改變

    · 對動、植物造成生活上的逆境,影響了動、植物的生存與活動。

    影響微氣候的因素有以下幾點:

    1土壤和地表面:

    沙土和乾土地表溫度變化大,黏土和溼潤較好的導體,地表溫度變化小。此外,徵氣候亦受植被影響:密而矮的植被可以減小土壤溫度的變化。

    2地形:

    對微氣候有直接的影響。北半球向南山坡獲得較多的熱量,溫度較高 。

    3坡風;

    山谷會受下坡風影響,較寒冷的氣流會由山上流向山下,出現溫度逆轉,令溫度隨高度上升而增加提高其溫度。

    4.屏障和粗糙度:

    A microclimate is a local external atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. Microclimates exist, for example, near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere, or in heavily urban areas where brick, concrete, and asphalt absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and reradiate that heat to the ambient air. The area in a developed industrial park may vary greatly from a wooded park nearby, as natural flora in parks absorb light and heat in leaves, that a building roof or parking lot just conducts back to the air.

    Microclimates can be used to the advantage of gardeners who carefully choose and position their plants. Cities often raise the average temperature by zoning, and a sheltered position can reduce the severity of winter. Roof gardening, however, exposes plants to more extreme temperatures in both summer and winter See also: evapotranspiration, hydrozoning, xeriscaping

    Microclimates can also be present in areas though, where human activities affect climate. This can be through a number of ways such as deforestation, afforestation, farming practices, dark colored buildings and roadways, or dam construction.

    Solar energy advocates argue that widespread use of solar collection can mitigate overheating of urban environments by absorbing sunlight and putting it to work instead of heating the local surface objects.

    Another contributory factor to microclimate is the aspect or slope—south-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere are exposed to more direct sunlight than opposite slopes and are therefore warmer for longer.

    A microclimate can offer an opportunity as a small growing region for crops that cannot thrive in the broader area.

    Microclimates can also refer to purpose made environments, such as those in a room or other enclosure. Microclimates are commonly created and carefully maintained in museum display and storage environments. This can be done using passive methods, such as silica gel, or with active microclimate control devices.

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    7 years ago

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