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Veys asked in Arts & HumanitiesHistory · 1 decade ago

How many wars happened before the union of 13 colonies and names? (between indians-french-england-colonies)?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    It can be hard to define a War as a War many of the incidents eluded to were mere skirmishes between setlers and natives while others were diplomatic pissing matches. But here goes.

    1637 - The Pequot War

    "Pequot War

    "From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. This war saw the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day southern New England.

    400-700 Pequot people were killed by the colonists and their allies; hundreds more were captured and sold into slavery in Bermuda.[1] Those who managed to evade death or capture and enslavement dispersed. It would take the Pequot more than three and a half centuries to regain their former political and economic power in their traditional homeland region along the Pequot (present-day Thames) and Mystic Rivers in what is now southeastern Connecticut."

    1655 - 1660 -- The Peach tree War

    "Peach Tree War

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Peach Tree War (1655-1660) took place in the Dutch Colony of New Netherland and was, according to popular belief, started when a young Indian girl was shot by a Dutchman as she attempted to get a peach off a peach tree. This sparked a violent reaction from the local Indian people, starting off the war.

    It has been argued that the recapture of New Sweden by the Dutch at the direction of Peter Stuyvesant was instead the real cause of the war. The Indians were allies of the Swedes, who were their trading partner. The Indians wanted to take revenge on the Dutch for their lost trading partner who they thought of as being the weaker and needing Indian protection. Patroon Adriaen van der Donck is believed to have been killed at the outset this war, so ironically Stuvesant's actions directly led to his nemisis, van der Donck's death, although Stuvesant did not connect his actions with the Swedes with the Indian attacks."

    1675 to 77 -- 'King Phillip's War

    King Philip's War

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    King Philip's War was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. Nearly one in twenty persons overall among Indians and English were wounded or killed. King Philip's war was one of the bloodiest and most costly in the history of America.

    The war is named after the main leader of the Indian side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom known to the English as "King Philip"."

    1689 - 97 -- KIng William's War

    King William's War

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War (1689–1697), was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England.

    King William's War started when William III of England joined the League of Augsburg against France. The war saw attacks by France and its Indian allies on English frontier settlements, most notably the Schenectady Massacre of 1690. The English failed to seize Quebec City, and the French commander there attacked the British-held coast. The Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 was supposed to end the war, but peace did not last long, and shortly the colonies were embroiled in the next of the French and Indian Wars, Queen Anne's War."

    1702 to 1713 Queen Anne's War

    Queen Anne's War

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe.

    Early in the war, in 1702, the English captured and burned Spanish-held St. Augustine, Florida. However, the English were unable to take the main fortress of St. Augustine, resulting in the campaign being condemned by the English as a failure. The Spanish maintained St. Augustine and Pensacola for more than a century after the war, but their mission system in Florida was destroyed. English military aid to the colonists was largely ineffective or deflected in defense of the areas around Charleston, South Carolina, and the New York–New England frontier with the Canadian territories. French forces and allied indigenous tribes attacked New England from Canada, destroying Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1704. The Apalachee, the Spanish, and Catholicism were erased from Florida in what became known as the Apalachee Massacre.

    Following the capture of French-held Port Royal by Francis Nicholson in 1710, Acadia became the British[1] province of Nova Scotia. By 1712 an armistice was declared. Under terms spelled out in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Britain gained Newfoundland, the Hudson Bay region, and the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. The peace lasted until the next of the French and Indian Wars, King George's War in 1744.

    The British conquest of Acadia would ultimately bring severe consequences for its French inhabitants. In 1755, during the French and Indian War, many would be expelled from the colony. Some would eventually make their way to Louisiana. The Canadian League remained neutral in this war.'"

    1715 Yanasse War

    "For years, the Yamasee and the Carolinians conducted slave raids upon Spanish-allied Indians and attacks on St. Augustine itself. However, in 1715, the Yamasee began to attack British colonists due to dissatisfaction over the fur trade. Some neighboring tribes allied themselves with the Yamasee against the British, launching a conflict that came to be known as the Yamasee War, which lasted into 1716. The British settlers were aided by Cherokee, the Creek, and colonists from Virginia, and defeated the Yamasee at Saltketchers on the Combahee River.

    The Yamasee then migrated south to the area around St. Augustine, Florida and became allied with the Spanish against the English. In 1727, the British attacked the tribe's settlement and slaughtered most of them; this and conflicts with the Creek decimated the Yamasee population. The survivors eventually assimilated into the Seminole tribe."

    1739 - 48

    "War of Jenkins' Ear

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Dotted line shows the route of Spanish treasure fleet. Orange areas are Spanish territory, yellow is French and green is British. Red stars indicate the British attacks.The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. After 1742 it merged into the larger War of the Austrian Succession.

    Under the 1729 Treaty of Seville, the British had agreed not to trade with the Spanish colonies. To verify the treaty, the Spanish were permitted to board British vessels in Spanish waters. After one such incident in 1731, Robert Jenkins, captain of the ship Rebecca, claimed that the Spanish coast guard had severed his ear. Encouraged by his government (which was determined to continue its drive toward commercial domination of the Atlantic basin), in 1738 Jenkins exhibited his pickled ear to the House of Commons, whipping up war fever against Spain. To much cheering, the British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declared war on October 23, 1739.

    One of the key actions was the British capture, on November 22, 1739, of the silver-exporting town of Puerto Bello (then in New Granada, now Panama), in an attempt to damage Spain's finances. The poorly defended port was attacked by six ships of the line under Admiral Edward Vernon. The battle demonstrated the vulnerability of Spanish trading practices, and led the Spanish fundamentally to change them. Rather than trading at centralised ports with large treasure fleets, they began using small numbers of ships trading at a wide variety of ports. They also began to travel around Cape Horn to trade on the west coast.[citation needed] Puerto Bello's economy was severely damaged, and did not recover until the building of the Panama Canal. In Britain the victory was greeted with much celebration, and in 1740, at a dinner in honour of Vernon in London, the song "God Save the King", now the British national anthem, was performed in public for the first time. Portobello Road in London is named after this victory and the battle was the most medalled event of the eighteenth century. The conquest of Spain's American empire was considered a foregone conclusion.

    British Admiral Edward Vernon had recruited some 3,500 American colonists for these attacks, enticing them with dreams of capturing mountains of Spanish silver and gold.[citation needed]

    The success of this operation led the British in 1740 to send a squadron under Commodore George Anson to attack Spain's possessions in the Pacific.

    March, 1741 saw Sir Edward Vernon (known by the nickname of "Old Grog") lead a fleet of 186 ships and 23,600 men to the city of Cartagena de Indias, defended by some 3,600 men and 6 ships. The siege of Cartagena, a month of intense artillery fire and combat against the Spanish and colonial defenders — under the command of the Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava, Don Melchor de Navarrete, Don Carlos Des Naux, and the great Don Blas de Lezo — ended with the British fleet withdrawing in defeat, having lost 6,000 men and 50 ships.

    The Spanish also withstood attacks against St. Augustine in Florida; Havana, Cuba and Panama. Most of the American colonists died of yellow fever, dysentery, and outright starvation, and those who limped home, including George Washington's half-brother, Lawrence Washington, who renamed his Virginia plantation after Admiral Vernon, had little to show for their efforts.

    A 1742 Spanish counter-attack upon the British colony of Georgia at the Battle of Bloody Marsh was also repelled.

    The war was also characterised by relatively indecisive naval operations and enormous privateering by both sides. The war eventually died down due to lack of troops as resources were diverted by war in Europe — many had succumbed to disease — without any gain of territory on either side.

    However, something did change as a result: for the first time the British began referring to "Americans" rather than "colonials".[citation needed]

    In 1742, the war became a minor side-show as resources were redirected to the much larger War of the Austrian Succession. See that article for further discussion of Anglo-Spanish conflict. The Anglo-Spanish war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle."

    1754 to 1763 The French & Indian War

    The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon."

    1759 to 1763 -- The Anglo-Cherokee War

    'The Anglo-Cherokee War (1758–1761) (Cherokee:ᏓᏄᏩ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎦᏌᎴᎾ "war with those in the red coats" or ᎩᎵᏏ ᏓᏄᏩ "war with the english"), also known (from the Anglo-European perspective) as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, the Cherokee Rebellion, was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indians during the French and Indian War. The British and the Cherokee were formally allies at the start of the war, but each party repeatedly suspected the other of betrayal. Tensions between English-American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the 1750s."

    1763 TO 1766 -- Pontiac's War

    Pontiac's Rebellion

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    I"n a famous council on April 27, 1763, Pontiac urged listeners rise up against the British.

    Date 1763–1766

    Location Great Lakes region of North America

    Result Military stalemate; American Indians concede British sovereignty but compel British policy changes

    Territorial

    changes Portage around Niagara Falls ceded by Senecas to the British

    Combatants

    British Empire American Indians

    Commanders

    Jeffrey Amherst,

    Henry Bouquet Pontiac,

    Guyasuta

    Strength

    ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2]

    Casualties

    450 soldiers killed,

    2,000 civilians killed or captured,

    4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease

    Pontiac's Rebellion

    Fort Detroit – Fort Pitt – Bloody Run – Bushy Run – Devil's Hole

    Pontiac's Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British rule in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War (1754–1763). Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict.

    The war began in May 1763 when American Indians, alarmed by policies imposed by British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. The Indians were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.

    Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other atrocities were widespread. In what is now perhaps the war's best-known incident, British officers at Fort Pitt attempted to infect the besieging Indians with blankets that had been exposed to smallpox. The ruthlessness of the conflict was a reflection of a growing racial divide between British colonists and American Indians. The British government sought to prevent further racial violence by issuing the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which created a boundary between colonists and Indians."

    You can do the math - hope this helps...

    Peace...

  • celine
    Lv 4
    5 years ago

    Before the French and Indian War, Britain took almost no notice of the colonies. After the war, Britain felt the colonies should pay the costs of the war. The colonists had not been taxed before so they rebelled.

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