# (英文)輔大應外系也不會翻!!跪求英文高手幫忙T^T

Our eyes can make a remarkable number of distinctions

within a small area. With the use of very light grid lines,

it is easy to locate 625 points in one square inch or,

equivalently. 100 points in one square centimeter.

Or consider how an 80 by 80 grid over a square inch

about 30 by 30 over a square centimeter divides the space.

With the help of considerable redundancy and context,

our eyes make fine distinctions of this sort all the time.

Measurement instruments used in engineering,

architectural, and machine work are engraved with scales

of 20 increments to the centimeter and 50 to the inch.

Or consider the reading of fine print. The type in the

U.S Statistical Abstract is set at 12 lines per vertical inch,

with each line running at about 23 characters per square inch.

The actual density, given the white space, is in this case

185 characters per square inch or 28 per square centimeter.

Maps routinely present even finer detail. A cartographer writes

that “the resolving power of the eye enables it to differentiate

to 0.1 mm where provoked to do so. Clearly, therefore,

conciseness is of the essence and high resolution graphics are a

common denominator of cartography.” Distinctions at 0.1mm

mean 254 per inch.

How many statistical graphics take advantage of the eye to detect

large amounts of information in small spaces? And how much

information should graphics show? Let us begin by considering

an empirical measure of graphical performance, the data density.

The numbers that go into a graphic can be organized into a data

matrix of observations by variables. Taking into account the size

of the graphic in relation to the amount of data displayed yields the

data density.

Update:

Rating

我幫你翻譯看看好了!! 盡力囉~~

我們的雙眼針對極小的區域仍能擁有高度辨別能力. (譬如) 拿非常細的格子線條來說, 雙眼能夠簡單指出在邊長一英吋正方體中的625個小點, 或者相對地, 邊長一公分正方體中的100個點.

或者可以(換個方式)思考一下, 在邊長一英吋的正方體中, 80*80或

在邊長一公分的正方體中, 30*30 (指切割數量) 在那樣的空間中是如何被分割的.

靠著大量排他性(指排除不需要被注意的)和上下文的幫助, 我們的雙眼總是能夠將這類的事物分辨得相當仔細.

使用在工程技術, 建築類和機械類工作的測量工具上, 會雕刻出依每20為尺度依序增加, 一直到50英吋(長度).

(這個地方是告訴你, 人的眼睛可以雕刻出這麼這麼細微的間距差異是很厲害的事情)

或者想想精美的印刷術. 在U.S Statistical Abstract (這應該是專有名詞)的類型中, 是根據直線每英吋有12條線而且每條線的每一英吋方格中有23個符號來製作!

空白處的地方實際的密度, 在這個例子中, 每一英吋方格中有185個符號或是每一公分方格中有28個符號!

日常生活中的地圖也能夠呈現出相關的細節. 某位製圖者寫道,

''雙眼堅毅的力量(指分辨細微處的能力)讓它們在刻意受到刺激時(因為製圖者需要有好眼力)最小可以分辨0.1毫米的差異性.''

因此, 很明顯地, 最基本的簡潔和圖像高度辨識度是最常見的製圖採用原因. (是說雖然很小, 但是要讓看的人能清楚分辨指示) 每0.1毫米辨識度代表每一英吋可分辨254(點).

有多少統計學上製圖者利用了雙眼可偵測出小空間內含大量資訊的優勢點? 而製圖者應該顯示出多少(這樣的)資訊? 讓我們從思考圖表呈現這方面的經驗測量方法開始 --- 資料密度.

在一份圖像中的數量可以被組織成一個藉由變化而產生的觀察性的資料矩陣. 考慮圖像中的數量多寡和資料顯示數量多寡所產生的資料密度(兩者間)的關連性.

我覺得其時主要概念不難, 只是要翻得很漂亮需要一段時間, 我不知道你是看不懂需要翻譯還是老師的目的是要你們翻得很漂亮?

呵呵~~~~~