Down Syndrome?

So I'm doing a research report on Down Syndrome. I have to answer this on a notecard. Can you help me answer?

I need the website also where you got it from. Thanks.

Any help would be great!!

Here is the question:

Research, Fundrasing? Finding a cure? How long is it anticipated?


4 Answers

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Best Answer

    What is Down syndrome?

    Down syndrome is a relatively common birth defect caused by the presence of an extra chromosome number 21 (three instead of two number 21 chromosomes, or, trisomy 21). This chromosome abnormality adversely affects both the physical and intellectual development of the individual.

    What are some of the features of Down syndrome?

    Down syndrome causes mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearance, and multiple malformations. It is associated with a major risk for heart malformations, a lesser risk of duodenal atresia (part of the small intestines is not developed), and a small but still significant risk of acute leukemia.

    What is the nature of the chromosome abnormality?

    The chromosome abnormality that causes Down syndrome is trisomy 21, an extra copy of chromosome number 21. This means that instead of having the normal 2 copies of chromosome number 21, the person with Down syndrome has 3 copies of chromosome number 21. Confirmation requires a chromosome study (analysis under the microscope of the chromosomes).

    A chromosome study is also valuable to rule in or out a translocation (a type of rearrangement) of chromosome 21 that may be heritable in which case it can give rise to more cases of Down syndrome in the family. The evaluation of the Down syndrome baby and the family by a medical geneticist is often useful.

    What are some of the minor anomalies in Down syndrome?

    In Down syndrome there are certain characteristic features in the appearance which may individually be quite subtle but together permit a clinical diagnosis of Down syndrome to be made at birth. These signs of Down syndrome include slight flattening of the face, minimal squaring off of the top of the ear, a low bridge of the nose (lower than the usually flat nasal bridge of the normal newborn), an epicanthal fold (a fold of skin over top of the inner corner of the eye, which can also be seen less frequently in normal babies), a ring of tiny harmless white spots around the iris, and a little narrowing of the palate. There are many, many more minor malformations in Down syndrome.

    What are some of the major malformations in Down syndrome?

    Down syndrome is also associated with a number of major malformations. For example, approximately a half of Down syndrome children are born with a heart defect, most often a hole between the two sides of the heart. For another example, Hirschprung disease (congenital aganglionic megacolon) which can cause intestinal obstruction occurs more frequently in children with Down syndrome than in other children.

    What are the intellectual features of Down syndrome?

    The intellectual handicaps in Down syndrome are often the most important problem. These handicaps may not be evident in early infancy. However, they tend to become increasingly noticeable later in infancy and during childhood as developmental delay. In adults with Down syndrome, the intellectual handicap is manifest as mental retardation.

    What is the long term outlook for adults with Down syndrome?

    The idea has somehow caught on and spread in recent years that persons with Down syndrome can lead relatively normal lives as adults. We would all prefer to take this type of attitude and be entirely optimistic toward Down syndrome. Unfortunately, that does not necessarily always jibe with reality. Very few adults with Down syndrome can lead independent lives because of their mental retardation.

    It was once thought that nearly all adults with Down syndrome developed Alzheimer's disease (dementia) so that on top of their mental handicap most people with Down syndrome were slated for premature senility. However, it now appears that a much lower proportion, perhaps 20 to 25%, of Down's adults develop dementia. The majority of adults with Down syndrome may thus be spared this fate.

    Why is it called Down syndrome?

    It probably should not be, but the name has stuck. Down syndrome refers to a 19th century English physician by the name of Langdon Down. Ironically, he was not the first person to describe the condition, he added little to our knowledge of it and, in great error, he attributed the condition to a "reversion" to the mongoloid race. The disorder was also once called mongolism, a term now considered obsolete. The most accurate name is probably trisomy 21.

  • 1 decade ago

    Hey there, my 2nd cousin has down syndrome and even though she can speak, we are teaching her sign language to help her communicate even more. They have the Walk every year for Down Syndrome in major cities which is their major fundraiser. Go to the website below and you can check out more information. Good luck and great research report!!!

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    also try

    (There's nothing stupider than an immature jerk who can't even spell an insult).

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.