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Anonymous asked in 教育及參考書其他 - 教育 · 1 decade ago

咩係新古典主義? help

咩係新古典主義?

我要做功課 pls help

請有中文同英文呀 thz

2 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
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    新古典主義

    新古典主義(英語︰Neoclassicism),是一種新的復古運動。興起於18世紀的羅馬,並迅速在歐美地區擴展的藝術運動,影響了裝飾藝術、建築、繪畫、文學、戲劇和音樂等眾多領域。新古典主義,一方面起於對巴洛克(Baroque)和洛可可(Rococo)藝術的反動,另一方面則是希望以重振古希臘、古羅馬的藝術為信念(亦即反對華麗的裝飾,儘量以儉樸的風格為主)。新古典主義的藝術家刻意從風格與題材模仿古代藝術,並且知曉所模仿的內容為何。

    雕刻

    新古典主義在雕刻藝術上以淺浮雕(bas relief)圖式表現,因此截然不同於巴洛克風格的深度雕刻。代表藝術家有巴利(Barry)、卡諾瓦(Conova)、富拉克斯曼(Flaxman)、漢彌頓(Hamilton)、蒙斯、畢拉內及(Piranesi)、托爾瓦森(Thorwaldsen)、維恩(Vien)、魏斯特(West)。

    建築

    在建築方面,最著名的就是傑佛遜設計的維吉尼亞大學校園。除了維吉尼亞大學外,傑佛遜連住家都是自己親手設計的。

    繪畫

    新古典主義是一個與藝術相關的小作品。你可以通過編輯或修訂擴充其內容。

    西方藝術潮流

    文藝復興 · 風格主義 · 巴洛克藝術 · 洛可可 · 新古典主義 · 浪漫主義 · 現實主義 · 前拉斐爾派 · 學院藝術 · 印象派 · 後印象派

    20世紀

    現代主義 · 立體主義 · 表現主義 · 抽象派 · 達達主義 · 野獸派 · 新藝術派 · 包浩斯 · 風格派 · 裝飾藝術 · 抽象表現派 · 波普藝術 · 未來主義 · 至上主義 · 超現實主義 · 極簡主義 · 後現代主義

    For other uses, see Neoclassical (disambiguation).

    Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. These movements were in effect at various times between the 18th and 20th centuries. This article addresses what these "neoclassicisms" have in common.

    What any "neo"-classicism depends on most fundamentally is a consensus about a body of work that has achieved canonic status (illustration, below). These are the "classics." Ideally— and neoclassicism is essentially an art of an ideal— an artist, well-schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat it in lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work. This sets a high standard, clearly; but though a neoclassical artist who fails to achieve it may create works that are inane, vacuous or even mediocre, gaffes of taste and failures of craftsmanship are not commonly neoclassical failings. Novelty, improvisation, self-expression, and blinding inspiration are not neoclassical virtues; neoclassicism exhibits perfect control of an idiom. It does not recreate art forms from the ground up with each new project, as modernism demanded. "Make it new" was the modernist credo of the poet Ezra Pound.

    Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756)Speaking and thinking in English, "neoclassicism" in each art implies a particular canon of "classic" models. Virgil, Raphael, Nicolas Poussin, Haydn. Other cultures have other canons of classics, however, and a recurring strain of neoclassicism appears to be a natural expression of a culture at a certain moment in its career, a culture that is highly self-aware, that is also confident of its own high mainstream tradition, but at the same time feels the need to regain something that has slipped away: Apollonius of Rhodes is a neoclassic writer; Ming ceramics pay homage to Sung celadon porcelains; Italian 15th century humanists learn to write a "Roman" hand we call italic (a.k.a. Carolingian); Neo-Babylonian culture is a neoclassical revival, and in Persia the "classic" religion of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, is revived after centuries, to "re-Persianize" a culture that had fallen away from its own classic Achaemenean past. Within the direct Western tradition, the earliest movement motivated by a neoclassicial inspiration is a Roman style that was first distinguished by the German art historian Friedrich Hauser (Die Neuattische Reliefs Stuttgart 1889), who identified the style-category he called "Neo-Attic" among sculpture produced in later Hellenistic circles during the last century or so BCE and in Imperial Rome; the corpus that Hauser called "Neo-Attic" consists of bas reliefs molded on decorative vessels and plaques, employing a figural and drapery style that looked for its canon of "classic" models to late 5th and early 4th century Athens and Attica.

  • 1 decade ago

    『新古典主義』的起源:大約西元1789年的時候人們厭倦了長期以來描繪日常生活的世俗畫或肖像畫,再加上此時因考古學的重大發現,使古希臘與羅馬的文明得以重現世人,於是形成一股『復古』風潮。也因此藝術的表現形式上,形成一種更嚴謹、更莊嚴、更趨向英雄式的構圖來營造畫面,這種重『新』追尋古希臘平衡莊嚴的『古典』風潮,就是美術史上所稱的『新古典主義』。

    新古典主義代表畫作:大衛 馬拉之死,1793,油彩、畫布 藏布魯塞爾 皇家美術館

    『浪漫主義』的起源:這時有一批藝術家對當時的主流-『新古典主義』所以提出的反叛!他們不認為『美』並不就一定是『均衡、優雅、道德、理性、靜態....的』;而是一種更具有『爆發力』的視覺震撼!尤其要在畫中『加油添醋』,讓畫中的世界更引人、更『煽情』才夠味!

    浪漫主義的代表畫作:歌雅 1808年5月3日,1841,油彩,畫布 藏馬德里 普拉多美術館

    比較:而『新古典主義』及『浪漫主義』,大抵接是以『寫實而細膩』的畫法,來記錄『歷史上』、『神話上』、『故事中』的世界。只是,『新古典主義』較注重理性而客觀的描寫與場景的劇情的舖陳:而『浪漫主義』則是較為『主觀』的觀點,直接將事件的感人之處誇大、表現出來。

    還好我有修過藝術課,可以回答你的問題,因為我是參考課本而打上去的,所以非常的正確,不必擔心是網路的錯誤信訊息,希望能提供你正確的訊息與學習!!

    寫實主義:

    浪漫主義的題材,距離日常生活遙遠。對十九世紀畫家要把所看到的,忠實地記錄下來。只有描寫生活的真實片段內容的,才是寫實主義。此時因發明照相術而產生照相跟繒畫的分別在那的疑問。代表畫家:庫爾貝。

    自然主義:

    由於1840年照相術發明、工業製造大量顏料(之前顏料大部份是自己研磨製成的)。使畫家對繪畫的目標,重做一次檢討。於是畫家都在尋求如何發展寫實的繒畫風格。

    重要畫家

    米勒 (Millet,l814 - 75) ,代表作為

    「晚禱」、「拾穗」等,表現出人的尊嚴。以描寫自然外貌為出發點,對於內在精神有深刻表現。

    柯洛 (Corot, 1796 - 1875) ,表現微霧迷濛及銀般的綠色,描寫鄉村風景的繒畫中獨樹一幟。作品的空間、光線處理平衡。

    寫實與自然主義的折衷:

    在此同時,將寫實主羲與自然主美折衷起來的是馬奈 (Manet, 1832 - 83) 。題材為日常事物,描寫瞬間的視覺品質。1861年,他的「彈吉他者」入選沙龍,此後作品一再遭落選。使用對比色及不尋常的技巧震驚當時,代表作「草地上的午餐」及「奧林匹亞」,更被,評為下流、粗俗、低級

    基本定義如此描繪:「早期印象主義繪畫即朦朧又光輝....瞬息即逝的事務被賦與外形,與說是力求長久而不許消逝的紀念碑式的或理想主義藝術的目地形成對比。印象主義創造了一種獨具匠心的自然主義。」印象主義畫家們捕捉的是他們題材的視覺效果,這些作品避開線條分明的輪廓,用模糊的外廓、細碎的筆觸,表現對景物的“印象”。它可以是“表現性”的,但不是“唯實論”的。他的著眼點不在對象本身,而在自然界光影的變化。若說古典畫家要畫的是“本質”,而印象派畫家要畫的是“現象”。

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