Anybody know anything about Peru?

I have to do a report on Lima, Peru. (well accultly Peru). Does anybody know any good websites or anyone happen to know anything about it?? Anything will help me!! I need help and ive looked a bunch of places but havnt found enough stuff. PLEASE HELP ME!!!!

Update:

i know it is a Spanish speaking country.... this project is for Spanish class.

11 Answers

Relevance
  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    History

    Main article: History of Peru

    Pre-Columbian

    Andean Peru is recognized as one of only six areas of indigenous development of civilization in the world and one of only two in the Western Hemisphere, along with Mesoamerica. The earliest such developments are associated with the Caral archaeological site, dated to around 3,200 years BC.[1] It was followed by several cultures such as Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari and Chimu. In the 15th-century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which grew from being a small tribe around Cusco to a powerful empire in the span of a century. Andean societies were based on agriculture developed through the use of irrigation and terracing among other techniques. Husbandry of camelids and fishing were also important economic activities. Social organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution as there was no notion of market or money.

    Colonial

    In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated Inca Emperor Atahualpa and imposed Spanish domination. After several years of conflicts among them, the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542 with jurisdiction over most of its dependencies in South America. The country was reorganized in the 1570s under the leadership of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo with silver mining as the basic economic activity and Indian forced labor as the primary workforce. Bullion produced this way provided considerable revenues for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network controlled by merchants from Lima which allowed the circulation of regional products as well as imports from Europe and other parts of the world.[2]

    By the 18th-century, Royal income from silver production had diminished considerably due to widespread smuggling and tax evasion. In reaction to such development, common throughout the Americas, and to the growing concern over the vulnerability of its colonies, the Crown enacted a series of edicts known as the Bourbon Reforms.[3] Taxes were incresed and so were fiscal controls, at the same time, the Viceroyalty of Peru was partitioned resulting in the creation of the viceroyalties of Nueva Granada and Río de la Plata. The new laws alienated various social groups and provoked several revolts, among them the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in 1780,[4] but all of them were defeated. In the early 19th-century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence Peru remained a royalist stronghold. The Peruvian elite remained hesitant between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarch thus, independence was only achieved as a result of the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.[5]

    Republican

    The Battle of Angamos was a decisive encounter during the War of the Pacific.

    The Battle of Angamos was a decisive encounter during the War of the Pacific.

    The early years of the Republic were marked by endemic political unrest with several military caudillos wrestling for power.[6] They were also a period of national identity definition as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation foundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[7] During the mid-19th century, Peru enjoyed several years of stability under the leadership of Ramón Castilla thanks to a fiscal bonanza sustained on guano exports.[8] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been dilapidated, the country was heavily indebted and political infighting was again on the rise. Under these conditions, Perú was defeated by Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879-1883), which resulted in the loss of Arica and Tarapacá. Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability associated to the predominance of the Civilista Party, known as the Aristocratic Republic.[9] It lasted until the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía (1919-1930) which marked the irruption into politics of the middle classes.[10]

    The Great Depression caused the downfall of the Leguía regime, followed by renewed political turmoil and the appearence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[11] The rivalry between this organization and an alliance between the Armed Forces and the elite was the main feature of Peruvian politics for the following three decades. In 1968, after the failure of the reformist government of Fernando Belaunde, the Armed Forces staged a coup led by General Juan Velasco. Under the name Gobierno Revolucionario de las Fuerzas Armadas (Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces), the new regime undertook a series of radical reforms but, despite its populist rethoric, failed to gain widespread support.[12] In 1975, Velasco was forcefully replaced as president by General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, who paralyzed reforms and oversaw the transfer of power back to civilians.[13]

    During the 1980s, Peru faced a huge external debt, an ever growing inflation, a surge in drug trafficking and the massive political violence derived from the actions of the insurgent groups Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement), all of which deteriorated further towards the end of the decade. In 1990, Alberto Fujimori was elected president, two years later he summarily dissolved Parliament and convened a Democratic Constitutional Congress which drafted a new Constitution. Under his presidency, Peru began its economic recovery, however, accusations of authoritarianism, corruption and human rights violations forced his resignation after the controversial 2000 elections.

    Government

    Main article: Politics of Peru

    Casa de Pizarro, the government palace of Peru.

    Casa de Pizarro, the government palace of Peru.

    Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a pluriform multi-party system. According to the current constitution the President of Peru is the head of state and government, elected for five years with no inmediate re-election.[14] The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[15] There is a unicameral Congress with 120 members, also elected for a five-year period.[16] Both, Executive and Legislature have the power to propose legislation which after Congress approval needs to be promulgated by the President in order to be enacted.[17] The Judiciary is established as an independent branch of government according to law,[18] however political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and is still perceived to be so.[19]

    Elections are held through direct universal suffrage, voting is compulsory for citizens age eighteen through seventy.[20] Members of the Armed Forces and the Police are not allowed to vote or be elected.[21] General elections held in 2006 ended in a second round victory for Alan García of the Peruvian Aprista Party against Ollanta Humala of Union for Peru with 52.6% versus 47.4% of the valid votes.[22] Congressional results were 45 seats for Union for Peru, 35 for the Peruvian Aprista Party, 17 for National Unity, 13 for Alliance for the Future, 5 for the Center Front and 2 each for Peru Possible and National Restoration.[23]

    Peruvian foreign relations have historically been absorbed by border conflicts with neighbouring countries some of which have only been settled recently. There is still an ongoing dispute with Chile over maritime limits in the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an active member of several regional blocs, the most important of which is the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant of several international organizations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States. It is currently an elected member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2006-2007.

    Peruvian Army T-55 tanks on parade.

    Peruvian Army T-55 tanks on parade.

    The Peruvian Military has as its primary mission safeguarding the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country against any threat.[24] It is composed of three branches: the Ejército del Perú (Army), the Marina de Guerra del Perú (Navy) and the Fuerza Aérea del Perú (Air Force). Each of these services is subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by a voluntary system, males and females can serve for two years in the military institution of their choosing provided they meet the necessary requirements.[25]

    Administrative divisions

    Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru

    Peruvian territory is divided into 25 regions (regiones) except for Metropolitan Lima which forms an independent province.[26] Each has its own elected government composed of a president and a council, all of which serve for a four-year term.[27] Lima is under the jurisdiction of the city mayor.

    The 25 regions are as follows:

    Regions of Peru

    Regions of Peru

    1. Amazonas (Chachapoyas)

    2. Ancash (Huaraz)

    3. Apurímac (Abancay)

    4. Arequipa (Arequipa)

    5. Ayacucho (Ayacucho)

    6. Cajamarca (Cajamarca)

    7. Callao (Callao)

    8. Cusco (Cusco)

    9. Huancavelica (Huancavelica)

    10. Huánuco (Huánuco)

    11. Ica (Ica)

    12. Junín (Huancayo)

    13. La Libertad (Trujillo)

    14. Lambayeque (Chiclayo)

    15. Lima (Huacho)

    16. Lima Metropolitana (Lima)

    17. Loreto (Iquitos)

    18. Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado)

    19. Moquegua (Moquegua)

    20. Pasco (Cerro de Pasco)

    21. Piura (Piura)

    22. Puno (Puno)

    23. San Martín (Moyobamba)

    24. Tacna (Tacna)

    25. Tumbes (Tumbes)

    26. Ucayali (Pucallpa)

    Geography

    Main article: Geography of Peru

    Satellite image of Peru.

    Satellite image of Peru.

    The territory of Peru covers 1,285,220 km² (496,193 mi²), which makes it 20th-largest country in the world, comparable to Chad and double the size of the U.S. state of Texas. It neighbours Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the south-east, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

    The main geographic feature is the Andes mountain range which runs parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Between the mountains and the sea there is a narrow coastal plain, most of which is a desert except for a number of valleys created by seasonal rivers. The highlands comprise the highest point of the country, Huascarán mountain at 6,768 meters above sea level.[28] The abrupt terrain of this region is interrupted by valleys and plateaus, the largest of which is the Altiplano around Lake Titicaca. East of the Andes, there is a huge expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest which extends up to the border with Brazil.

    Rivers that run through Peruvian territory are divided among three basins: the Pacific Ocean Basin, the Amazon River Basin and Lake Titicaca Basin, the latter one being endorheic. The largest rivers of the country are, in descending order, Ucayali, Marañón, Putumayo, Yavarí, Huallaga, Urubamba, Mantaro and Amazon.[29] Climate is influenced by the proximity of Peru to the Equator but also by the presence of the Andes and the cold waters of the Humboldt Current. The combination of this factors make for a wide climate diversity which spans from the dryness of the coast to the extreme cold of mountain peaks to the heavy rainfall of the Amazon Basin.

    The varied geography and climate of Peru accounts for its high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003 and 5,855 of them being endemic.[30] To protect them the Peruvian Government has established several protected areas, see list of national parks in Peru.

    Economy

    Main article: Economy of Peru

    Aerial view of La Punta, Callao.

    Aerial view of La Punta, Callao.

    Peru is a developing country, as such it has a moderate per capita income and Human Development Index score. According to official sources 51.6% of the total population is regarded as poor including a 19.2% considered extremely poor as of 2004.[31]

    Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the years, the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado (1968-1975) introduced radical reforms which included an agrarian reform, the expropiation of several foreign companies, the introduction of a planning system and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve the objectives set by the regime, mainly the end of economic dependency and massive income redistribution.[32]

    Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed after the downfall of Velasco. A lukewarm liberalization attempt by the Belaunde administration (1980-1985) failed in the context of the Latin American debt crisis. During the presidency of Alan García (1985-1990) heterodox policies were again applied through the expansion of public expenditure and limitations on external debt payments.[33] This ended in budget deficits, hyperinflation, and negative GDP growth.[34]

    San Isidro is the main financial district of Lima.

    San Isidro is the main financial district of Lima.

    During the government of Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) the Peruvian economy underwent a process of liberalization which put an end to price controls, discarded protectionism, eliminated restrictions on foreign direct investment and privatized most state companies.[35] Reforms have allowed sustained economic growth since 1993 except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[36]

    In 2006, GDP grew 7.7%, and it is expected to grow 6.5% in 2007 and 6% for five years after 2008. In April 2006, Peru signed a trade agreement with the United States, the Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, becoming the first country in the Andean Community of Nations (Comunidad Andina de Naciones, CAN) to sign such an agreement.[37] As of June 2006, Peru's Congress had approved the agreement and the pact awaits approval by the US Congress. Peru is negotiating trade agreements with Chile, Mexico, Singapore and India. It has free trade agreements with the Andean Community and with many of the countries in Mercosur, as well as Thailand. During the recent APEC summit, Peru declared intentions to sign free trade agreements with China, Japan, and South Korea. Peru also seeks free trade with the European Union.

    Demographics

    Main article: Demographics of Peru

    Indigenous Peruvians learning to read.

    Indigenous Peruvians learning to read.

    With about 28 million inhabitants, Peru is currently the fourth most populous country in South America. Its demographic growth rate has declined from 2.6% in 1950 to 1.6% by the year 2000 and it is expected to decline further, as a result, Peruvian population is expected to reach around 42 million by the year 2050.[38] As of 2005, around 73% of the total population lived in urban areas, compared to just 28% in rural ones.[39] Major cities include Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Chimbote, Cusco and Huancayo, all of which reported more than 200,000 inhabitants in the 1993 census.[40] The main language of the Peruvian population is Spanish which, according to the 1993 census, was the mother tongue of 80.3% Peruvians age 5 and older. It coexists with several indigenous languages, the most important of which is Quechua, spoken by 16.5%. Other native languages accounted for 3% and foreign languages for 0.2% at that time.[41] According to the same source, 89% of the population over 12 years old declared themselves as catholics, 6.7% as evangelicals, 2.6% as of other denominations, 1.4% as non-religious and 0.2% did not specify any affiliation.[42]

    Culture

    Main article: Culture of Peru

    Machu Picchu, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

    Machu Picchu, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

    Peruvian culture is a fusion of the different traditions that have converged in its territory over several centuries. Main imputs have been provided by Amerindian inhabitants as well as Spanish colonizers which arrived after Conquest. Other important influences have been made by various ethnic groups from Africa, Asia and Europe. Peruvian art has a tradition in which spans several millennia, starting with Pre-Inca cultures, which developed elaborate examples of pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture. Drawing upon these earlier cultures, the Incas maintained these crafts and made even more impressive achievements in architecture, an example of which is Machu Picchu.

    Lima Cathedral, an example of colonial religious art.

    Lima Cathedral, an example of colonial religious art.

    After the Spanish Conquest, Baroque, modified by native traditions, became the dominant art style. Most artistic creations were devoted towards religious subjects as can be seen in the paintings of the Escuela Cusqueña or in the numerous churches built during this time. Colonial traditions were replaced after Independence by more modern european styles such as Neoclassicism until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. In more recent times, Peruvian art has been characterised by its eclecticism with foreign art currents intermingling with local developments.

    Peruvian literature can be traced back to the oral traditions of Pre-Columbian civilizations, writing was introduced with the arrival of Spaniards in the 16th century. Colonial forms of literary expression included chronicle and religious literature. After independence from Spanish rule, Peruvian literature developed along the lines of European currents such as Neoclassicism and Romanticism. By the early 20th century new developments had arisen as part of the Indigenismo movement. During the second half of that century, Peruvian literature became more widely known thanks to authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa.

    Ceviche is made out of seafood marinated in lemon juice.

    Ceviche is made out of seafood marinated in lemon juice.

    In recent years, Peruvian cuisine has received widespread acclaim by the international media thanks to its diversity of ingredients and techniques.[43] It is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from other groups such as Africans, Arabs, Italians, Chinese and Japanese, all of which have added their own traditions to the mix. The climate diversity found in Peruvian territory allows the production of a wide variety of plants and animals, both native and introduced. Common Peruvian dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, humitas, and pachamanca to name just a few.

    Peruvian music is very diverse, with Andean, Andalusian and African roots. Pre-Columbian musicians used wind instruments such as the quena and membranophone instruments such as the tinya. Spanish conquest brought new instruments like guitars and harps. It also prompted the appearance of new crossbred instruments such as the charango. There is an African contribution in rhythms and in Cajon, a percussion instrument. As for folk dances, most renowed examples include Marinera Norteña and Huayno.

    International rankings

    Organisation Survey Ranking

    Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 70 out of 163

    World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 74 out of 125

    A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2005 PDF 53 out of 62

    United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 82 out of 177

    Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2007 63 out of 157

    Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2006 112 out of 168

    The Economist Worldwide Quality-of-life Index 2005 53 out of 111

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    The actual president is Alan Garcia Perez which used to be president from 1985-1990, he was the worst president in the story of peru , the economy was crap, and there was a lot of terrorist attacks. Now he is doing a good job.

    Peru mostly survive because of exports. We mainly export minerals, such as cooper, etc. Also the agriculture is huge here, we have a nice weather and 3 different regions which are very different( costa near the ocean, also have deserts; sierra which is the mountains, snow, very cold; and the jungle part), and also the people from this regions are very different and have different lifestyles.

    Source(s): me
  • 1 decade ago

    I just returned from Lima last night (4/19/07). My wife is from Lima and as a matter of fact she stayed an extra week to visit relatives. What is it you are looking for? Do you want a physical object from Peru?

  • 1 decade ago

    I'm from peru.... what do you need to know about it? The culture it was mostly domain by the incas, and then a conquistador came a conquist peru .His name was Fransisco Pizarro....

    But if you are looking for imformation than that... go to google.com and search embassy of peru in USA and it would show you all different things about the country... for more question contact me at patricia_lesly14@hotmail.com...

    If you need anything else it will be glad to help you

    Source(s): www.google.com
  • How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer.
  • Anonymous
    5 years ago

    there is so much information on the web. Just type in Lima, Peru and you'll get tons of travel sites. Good luck

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    I can tell you that I have found tons of info on Peru just by googleing it. Lots of web sites and and hours of fun that I have enjoyed, and soon I will make Peru my home!

  • 1 decade ago

    If it is for Spanish class maybe you should go more into detail of all the resources the courty offers and what each region has to offer.

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Here are some sites, hope they help you find what you are looking for:

    www.peru-travel-adventures.com/lima-peru.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lima

    http://www.geographia.com/peru/lima/index.htm

    http://lima.usembassy.gov/

  • 1 decade ago

    visit wikipedia. there is many information

  • they mostly speak spanish and people live there mostly mexicans

  • 1 decade ago

    www.peru.info

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.