History buffs?

• What were the demographic effects of the Columbian exchange?

• Compare and explain the reasons for differences or similarities between the European colonies of North and South America.

• State and justify your position on the role of the Catholic Church in regard to relations with the Amerindian people in either the Spanish or the French American colonies.

2 Answers

  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Settlement of the Americans

    a. early Americans came from Asia during the Ice Age when less water separated the continents

    aa. came either by Bering Land Bridge or in small boats

    ab. no one knows when - some estimates as early as 40,000 years ago

    b. these people and their descendents known as Native Americans (Indians)

    c. came into contact with Europeans about 500 years ago

    North American Life

    a. environment varies greatly from region to region

    aa. people developed their way of life according to their environment

    b. North (Alaska, Canada) – Inuit, Aleut – hunted, fished, gathered food along shores and waterways [MAP p 5]

    c. Northwest Coast (Washington, Oregon, BC) – Coos, Coast Salish, Makah – fishing important

    d. California – Chumash, Yurok – fish, acorns in mtns., beans from mesquite plants in desert

    da. spoke more than 100 variations of 20 languages

    e. Plateau (between Cascade & Rocky Mtns.) – Chinook, Cayuse – fished, gathered form forest

    f. Great Basin (area between Sierra Nevadas & Rocky Mtns.) – Paiute, Ute, Shoshoni – dry area, food scarce

    g. Southwest – Hopi, Zuni, Apache, Navaho, Anasazi/Pueblo

    ga. Anasazi/Pueblo lived in apartments like cliff dwellings 900s-1100s AD

    h. Plains – Mandans, Wichita, Pawnee, Dakota/Sioux – Farmed corn, beans, squash, hunted buffalo

    i. Northwest – Seneca, Lenape, Iroquois – mostly woodlands, hunted, gathered, grew corn

    j. Southeast – Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Mobile – hunted fished farmed

    ja. Native American cultures emerging in the Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys as early as 700 BC

    jb. Hopewell and other known as mound builders for the burial mounds they built

    jc. About AD 800 Mississippian Culture developed – built cities

    • Largest Cahokia (Illinois) had pop. About 40,000

    • Creek & Cherokee also built towns, largest Etowah (Georgia), had pyramid 60 ft.

    Shared Customs and Beliefs

    a. many Native Americans shared a common social structure and religion

    b. societies according to family relationships – kinship

    c. kinship groups based on clan

    d. believed the most powerful forces in the world are spiritual

    da. many beliefs tied to nature

    e. traditions and beliefs passed in through oral history

    Christopher Columbus

    a. born Cristoforo Columbo in Genoa, Italy 1451

    b. went to Portugal to train as a navigator

    c. 1476, survived a ship wreck off coast of Portugal

    A Daring Expedition

    a. Columbus believed that he could sail west and reach India

    aa. petitioned various European monarchs for ships

    ab. 1492, Spain gave him three ships: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria

    b. three reasons for Columbus’ voyage

    1. enrich his family; gain honor and fame

    2. spread Catholicism

    3. competition with Portugal

    c. Aug. 3, 1492 Columbus sailed from Spain

    d. Oct. 12, crew of Pinta spotted land – landed probably on San Salvador in Bahamas

    e. received a warm welcome from the Native Americans, the Tainos

    f. received a trip to Spain in Jan. 16, 1493 with two ships

    fa. Santa Maria had run aground

    g. 1499, Italian merchant Amerigo Vespucci made first of two voyages to Caribbean Sea

    ha. sailed along coast of South America – suggested that newly found lands might be a

    continent previously unknown to Europeans

    hb. 1507, German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, printed a map of “New World” using the name America

    Columbus’s Impact

    a. Columbian Exchange

    aa. exchange of goods between Europe and the “New World”

    ab. foods native to North America were introduced to other parts of the world

    b. Europeans brought diseases

    c. Spain claimed entire Western Hemisphere

    ca. Portugal complained to the Pope

    cb. 1494, at urging of Pope Alexander, Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas establishing a line of demarcation in which Spain was to rule over lands west of the line and Portugal east

    d. 1500s, France, England, & the Netherlands began to move into N. America

    e. Portugal and Spain established plantations

    ea. grew crops to sell – cash crops

    eb. many crops such as sugar cane, tobacco, cotton were labor intensive

    ec. kidnapped Native Americans and forced them to work on plantations

    ed. 1517, the first enslaved Africans arrived in the Americas

    ee. estimated 275, 000 West Africans taken against their will in 1500s

    • 6 mil. In 1700s

  • Anonymous
    5 years ago

    The cannoneer got a bang out of it and his neighbor had a ball. Somehow though, the "shot heard 'round the block doesnt sound as exciting as the one heard 'round the world.

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