Yes, Chinese tea and Japanese tea do have quite a lot of qualitative differences.
In China, although there are more than 1000 varieties of tea, they are often broadly classified into the following categories: 白茶 黄茶 緑茶 青茶 紅茶 黒茶 花茶: White, yellow, green, blue, red, black and flower teas. These range from a pale white via a yellowish color to dark brown, and even green tea is not really the green color you would imagine and is rather pale with a brown tinge, much paler than normal tea. The difference between the teas is how far the raw leaves are allowed to oxidize before being preserved, and the method of doing this. White tea is least oxidized (and very pale), blue tea in the middle of the scale (still a brown color), and black tea is at the other end (dark brown). Chinese red tea is the origin of what we would consider "normal" tea. Darker teas are generally left in darker humid places to oxidize where the leaves become browner first, whereas lighter teas are dried in the sun and roasted earlier to prevent oxidization resulting in the lighter color.
Japanese tea on the other hand usually has a green tinge, and is what you might imagine when thinking of "green" tea. The main types are: 抹茶 釜炒り茶 番茶 玉茶 煎茶 粉茶 玄米茶 ほうじ茶 芽茶 茎茶: matcha (powdered) kamairicha (pan fired), bancha (standard), gyokucha, sencha (roasted), kocha (finely ground), genmaicha (with rice), houjicha, mecha, kukicha (stalk).
Preparation is different for these teas. The proper way of preparing Chinese tea is as follows:
1) First pour hot water into the large cup used for brewing. This is to heat the cup.
2) Pour from the large cup to the pouring jug, to heat.
3) Pour from the pouring jug to the small drinking cups, again to heat.
4) Pour away all water.
5) Put a small amount of tea into the large cup, and leave to infuse. Water temperature should usually be around 60C.
6) With the lid on the cup, pour into the pouring jug, being careful not to allow leaves to drop into the jug.
7) Pour from the jug into the small drinking cups.
Japanese tea (sencha as an example):
1) Pour hot water into the small drinking cups to heat.
2) Put tea into the pot.
3) Pour from the cups into the pot.
4) Allow to infuse.
5) Pour back into the cups.
This is different from the matcha used in the ritualized tea ceremony, however, which involves such elements as admiring the tea cups, presentation of sweets, and use of a bamboo tea whisk.
The tastes of the different teas varies. The two chemicals responsible for taste are theanine (sweet) and catechin (bitter). Sun-dried teas have more catechin and are more bitter. Teas which are covered before picking (for example Japanese gyokucha) are sweeter. The temperature of the water you use to brew the tea also has an effect on the taste, as these chemicals infuse at different temperatures.
As for health benefits, all teas include amino acids, which are good for the body, and vitamins and fiber. Japanese matcha whose bitter taste is quite strong, is said to be good for health as while other teas are infused, matcha is a powdered tea where the tea itself is drunk meaning the vitamins and fiber is absorbed by the body the most.
In short, there is a lot of variation among Chinese and Japanese teas, and I hope you enjoy exploring the varieties and tastes they have to offer!