Yes they did. The musketeers we are familiar with in the Dumas stories, were different in that they were part of the Kings "Life Guard" a fancy dress mixed cavalry, infantry( armed with halberds and pikes) and shot ( the aforesaid musketeers) formation tasked with the protection of the Kings Person.
A vestige Queen Elizabeth I's Life Guard still serves her namesake and successor Elizabeth II it survives in the Gentlemen Warders of the Tower. "The Beefeaters". The Pope's Life Guard is the Swiss Guards who are a fully functional security service.
Muskets and Calivers a smaller, lighter firearm came into more or less general service, replacing the longbow/ caliver, mixed formation in use until the late middle of Elizabeth I's reign. The change occur ed as a result of English formations fighting with the Dutch against the Spanish; then the most professional and up to date Armies in Europe.
The firearm in question was a heavy weapon fired from a forked rest and fired a projectile of 12 bullets to the pound(.72 cal) The caliver fired 20 bullets to the pound (.68 cal) This was fired from the shoulder without a rest. Both of these firearms were fired by an ignition system called matchlock. The rates of fire on both these weapons was very slow. Three rounds a minute was considered competent. While these formations of shot were falling back and reloading they were protected with pikemen of various numbers according to military fashions of the time.
As I compose this answer, I am finding so much to interject or explain than seems practical. So instead of spending a lot of time typing on a complex and detailed explanation,I reccommend that you Google- Matchlock Musketeer- and any of the other terms used, which will give you all the detail you can swallow about the longest used ignition system for any military firearm in history and the men who used them at the dawn of modern warfare.