Where does money come from?

The global economy is a closed system, and the vast majority of the money/wealth is held in the richest few countries. So if inflation means that the average cost of everything is going up, and the total value of everything is going up, where does the money come from to allow this to happen. I know in the distant... show more The global economy is a closed system, and the vast majority of the money/wealth is held in the richest few countries. So if inflation means that the average cost of everything is going up, and the total value of everything is going up, where does the money come from to allow this to happen. I know in the distant past states would simply print more money, but now most money is electronic, and how is new money injected into the system? Who's books don't balance? who gets to always spend more than they take in without getting into trouble?
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