請醫學達人幫忙翻譯!!急!!贈20點

Conclusion In a large number of clinical trials for other types of cancer, it was concluded that immunotherapy is probably most efficacious in early-stage cancers. As such, immunotherapy is suitable for the adjuvant treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Indeed, the clinical results of immunotherapy trials are... show more Conclusion
In a large number of clinical trials for other types of
cancer, it was concluded that immunotherapy is probably
most efficacious in early-stage cancers. As such,
immunotherapy is suitable for the adjuvant treatment of
superficial bladder cancer. Indeed, the clinical results of
immunotherapy trials are promising for their use in a
multimodality treatment strategy required for this
malignancy. Theoretically, active immunotherapy aimed
at the activation of the cellular adaptive immune system
is the most attractive form, since this treatment modality
can induce immunosurveillance through the generation
of memory effector T cells and may in this way protect
the patient from tumor recurrence and metastasis.
Ongoing and future clinical trials on active immunotherapy
for superficial bladder cancer will demonstrate
whether this theory can be supported by clinical-based
evidence. There is a great challenge in overcoming a
number of major hurdles in the clinical development of
active immunotherapy, which are, amongst others, dictated
by the heterogeneity of cancer within a patient as
well as between patients. For immunogene therapy,
efficient and targeted gene transfer as well as sustained,
stable therapeutic gene expression for a long period of
time will be essential for clinical success. For vaccination,
most vaccines are currently restricted to patients
matching a defined HLA haplotype or are based on
autologous material and therefore complex to produce.
Standard vaccines that can be applied in large patient
populations are desirable but may not be established in
the near future.
1 answer 1