Anonymous
Anonymous asked in Science & MathematicsGeography · 1 decade ago

what are the main crops in the states of INDIA and some information on the main crops in Geography?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Food grains include rice, wheat, corn (maize), coarse grains (sorghum and millet), and pulses (beans, dried peas, and lentils). In 1990, approximately 127.5 million hectares (A hectare [symbol ha] is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square meters, commonly used for measuring land area) were sown with food grains, about 75 percent of the total planted area. The total number of hectares increased by 31 percent over the forty-year period from 1950 to 1990. Most of this increase occurred in the 1950s; there was almost no change in the sown number of hectares through the 1980s. Around 33 percent of cropland was given over to rice, about 29 percent to coarse grains, and the rest evenly divided between wheat and pulses.

    Sorghum and millet, the principal coarse grains, are dryland crops most frequently grown as staples in central and western India. Corn and barley are staple foods grown mainly near and in the Himalayan region. As the result of increased yields, the production of coarse grains has doubled since 1950; there was hardly any change in the area sown for these grains. The production of pulses did not fare well, increasing by only 68 percent over the four decades. Land devoted to pulses increased by 28 percent, and yields were up by 30 percent. Pulses are an important source of protein in the vegetarian diet; the small improvement in production along with the increase in population meant a reduced availability of pulses per capita.

    India in the mid-1990s has almost attained self-sufficiency in the production of oilseeds to extract vegetable oil, essential in the Indian diet. Peanuts, grown mainly as a rain-fed crop on part of the semiarid areas of western and southern India, account for the largest source of the nation's production of vegetable oils. The second-ranking source of vegetable oils in the early 1990s was rapeseed. Cottonseed, an important by-product of cotton fiber and once mostly fed to cattle, was another source of vegetable oils. Soybeans and sunflower seeds were relatively new as significant oilseeds, but their production increased rapidly in the 1980s.

    India is the largest producer of sugar in the world, harvesting 12 million tons in 1993, followed by Brazil's 9 million tons and China's 7 million tons.

    Raw cotton is the most important nonfood commodity produced on India's farms. Cotton was an important export crop in the 1950s, but thereafter it provided the raw material for India's textile industry, which grew greatly to meet the needs of an expanding population. Cotton fabrics found an expanding international market in the 1980s and earned valuable foreign exchange. The foreign exchange earned from raw cotton, cotton yarn, and fabrics of all textile materials increased from US $163 million in 1960 to US $1.4 billion in 1980 to nearly US $3.9 billion in 1990 and US $3.8 billion by 1992. Cotton production increased from 600,000 tons in 1950 to nearly 1.7 million tons in 1990. These improvements largely resulted from increased yields, as there was little increase in the sown area devoted to cotton.

  • 1 decade ago

    The CIA world factbook at www.cia.gov has this information for all countries.

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