what are the two basic types of radioactivity?
the question is under physics
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
All material is composed of atoms. Atoms are made up of various parts -- the nucleus that contains minute particles called protons and neutrons and an outer shell made up of other particles called electrons. The nucleus carries a positive electrical charge, the electrons a negative electrical charge. As electrons are bound to the nucleus of the atom, so are the particles within the nucleus. These forces within the nucleus work toward a strongly stable balance. The process by which the nuclei of atoms work toward becoming stable is to get rid of excess energy. Unstable nuclei may emit a quantity of energy, or they may emit a particle. This emitted atomic energy or particle is what we call radiation.
Types of Radiation - There are two basic kinds of radiation: One kind of radiation is tiny fast-moving particles that have both energy and mass (weight) known as particle radiation. The other kind of radiation is pure energy with no weight. This kind of radiation is like vibrating or pulsating waves of electrical and magnetic energy. The radiation waves are called electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation.
Ionizing/Non-Ionizing - Ionization is the process of removing electrons from atoms, leaving two electrically charged particles (ions) behind. Some forms of radiation like visible light, microwaves, or radio waves do not have sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms and, hence, are called non-ionizing radiation. The negatively charged electrons and positively charged nuclei may cause changes in living tissue.
Radioactive Decay - Large unstable atoms can become more stable by emitting radiation. This process is called radioactive decay. This radiation can be emitted in the form of a positively charged alpha particle, a negatively charged beta particle, or gamma rays.
Fission or Nuclear Fission - Some elements can split as a result of absorbing an additional neutron. This is called fission or nuclear fission. Such isotopes are called fissile isotopes. One particular fissile isotope is uranium-235. This is the isotope used in commercial nuclear reactors. When a nucleus fissions, three important events occur that result in the release of energy. These events are release of radiation, release of neutrons (usually two or three), and formation of two new nuclei (fission products).
- genericman1998Lv 51 decade ago
An atom's nucleus can emit 2 protons + 2 neutrons, i.e. an alpha particle. This is alpha radiation.
Or, a neutron in the nucleus can decay into a proton + electron, and the electron (also called a beta particle) is emitted while the proton remains in the nucleus. This is beta radiation.
- RosemaryLv 44 years ago
??? I dont understand your question. Please reword it to make sense. Anyway, there are many kinds of radiation, some include: Gamma Ultra Violet Particle Beta So please be more specific
- Anonymous1 decade ago
alph and beta