what is an endosperm?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein.

    Endosperm is formed when the two sperm inside a pollen grain reach the interior of an embryo sac or female gametophyte. One sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a zygote, while the other sperm usually fuses with the two female nuclei at the center of the ovary, creating endosperm (double fertilization). Thus endosperm cells are usually triploid (containing three sets of chromosomes) but can vary widely from diploid (2n) to 15n. [1]

    In some species (e.g. grains) the endosperm persists to the mature seed stage as a storage tissue, and in others it is absorbed during embryo development (e.g. common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) and the function of storage tissue is performed by enlarged seed leaves (cotyledons). In certain species (e.g. corn, Zea mays) the storage function is distributed between both endosperm and the embryo. Some mature endosperm tissues store fats (e.g. castor bean, Ricinis communis) and others (including grains, such as wheat and corn) store mainly starches. The dust-like seeds of orchids have no endosperm. Orchid seedlings are mycoheterotrophic in their early development. In some other species, such as coffee, the endosperm also does not develop.[2] Instead the nucellus produces a nutritive tissue termed perisperm.

    There are two different types of endosperm formation, the nuclear (or liquid endosperm) type, where formation of cell wall is delayed for a number of cell divisions and the cellular where cell wall formation is initiated instantly. The nuclear type is the most common one in angiosperms. Sweet corn is picked for eating at the tender liquid endosperm stage, before cell walls have formed and the sugars have been converted to starch. The 'milk' of the coconut is a liquid endosperm.

  • laxson
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    Endosperm

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    en·do·sperm (ĕn'də-spûrm'):

    The nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants, surrounding and absorbed by the embryo.

    Endosperm is tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein.

    Endosperm is formed when the two sperm inside a pollen grain reach the interior of an embryo sac or female gametophyte. One sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a zygote, while the other sperm usually fuses with the two female nuclei at the center of the ovary, creating endosperm (double fertilization). Thus endosperm cells are usually triploid (containing three sets of chromosomes) but can vary widely from diploid (2n) to 15n.

    There are two different types of endosperm formation, the nuclear (or liquid endosperm) type, where formation of cell wall is delayed for a number of cell divisions and the cellular where cell wall formation is initiated instantly. The nuclear type is the most common one in angiosperms. Sweet corn is picked for eating at the tender liquid endosperm stage, before cell walls have formed and the sugars have been converted to starch. The 'milk' of the coconut is a liquid endosperm.

    http://www.answers.com/topic/endosperm

  • pelley
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    Endosperm Definition

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  • Tracie
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    Nutritive tissue in the seeds of most flowering plants. It surrounds the embryo and is produced by an unusual process that parallels the fertilization of the ovum by a male gamete. A second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. Thus endosperm cells are triploid (having three sets of chromosomes); they contain food reserves such as starch, fat, and protein that are utilized by the developing seedling.

    In ‘non-endospermic’ seeds, absorption of these food molecules by the embryo is completed early, so that the endosperm has disappeared by the time of germination.

  • Dan
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    These are plants that have their seeds in cones. Spruce and Pine trees are perfect examples of this. As their seeds are released after a fire has gone through because the cones are covered in a waxxy membrane and this is heated up thus releasing the seeds hope that helps

  • 1 decade ago

    Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization.

  • 1 decade ago

    The nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants, surrounding and absorbed by the embryo.

  • 1 decade ago

    Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants.

  • 5 years ago

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