What is RNA? And what does RNA do?
- ibrarLv 41 decade agoFavorite Answer
ribonucleic acid: any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast, containing along the strand a linear sequence of nucleotide bases that is complementary to the DNA strand from which it is transcribed: the composition of the RNA molecule is identical with that of DNA except for the substitution of the sugar ribose for deoxyribose and the substitution of the nucleotide base uracil for thymine.
- 1 decade ago
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. RNA nucleotides contain ribose rings and uracil unlike deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contains deoxyribose and thymine. It is transcribed (synthesized) from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and further processed by other enzymes. RNA serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins, transferring amino acids to the ribosome to form proteins, and also translating the transcript into proteins.
Unlike DNA, RNA is almost always a single-stranded molecule and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. RNA contains ribose, rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA (there is a hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position whereas RNA has two hydroxyl groups). These hydroxyl groups make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis. Several types of RNA (tRNA, rRNA) contain a great deal of secondary structure, which help promote stability.
Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs including tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs and other non-coding RNAs (such as the SRP RNAs) are extensively base paired to form double stranded helices. Structural analysis of these RNAs have revealed that they are not, "single-stranded" but rather highly structured. Unlike DNA, this structure is not just limited to long double-stranded helices but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis, like enzymes. For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome in 2000 revealed that the active site of this enzyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation is composed entirely of RNA.
- Anonymous1 decade ago
The explanation above explains what RNA is but doesn't explain what it does....the genetic information in RNA is used to code for amino acids in protein synthesis which takes place in the ribosomes and mitonchondria. There are about 20 amino acids in the body and our vital to our survival...
- 1 decade ago
rna means ribonucleic acid which is pesent in viruses as genetic material .it helps in protein synthesis by undergoing translation