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諸葛亮(181年—234年),字孔明,號臥龍先生,琅琊郡陽都人(今山東省沂南縣)。三國時期蜀國大臣,著名的政治家、軍事家、外交家。

生平與功績

181年諸葛亮出生於琅琊郡陽都,家世一千石(即俸祿為一千石糧食)。

諸葛亮主政後,先重建孫劉聯盟,建興三年(225年)蜀漢南部的南中地區(即今雲南、貴州和四川的南部)少數民族在孟獲率領發動叛亂。諸葛亮即親率大軍,深入不毛,採取參軍馬謖建議,以攻心為主,打擊為首分子,盡量爭取當地上層大姓和民眾支持,有的被起用為地方長官。一年多後,這些地區的統治得以穩固,為後來的北伐提供了物力和兵力。

建興六年(228年)春,諸葛亮率領大軍出漢中,開始第一次北伐。參軍馬謖極受器重,北伐中馬謖為先鋒,違反節度,為張郃所敗,亮流涕處死,並以用人失察自請貶官。建興十二年(234年)諸葛亮於第五次北伐魏國中病故於五丈原,享年54歲,歸葬定軍山。

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest strategist of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. Zhuge is an uncommon two-character compound family name. His name (or even just his surname) has become synonymous with intelligence and wit in Chinese culture.

    Zhuge Liang was born in Yangdu County in Langya Commandery, at present-day Yishui County, Shandong Province.

    Zhuge Liang felt that in order to march North he would first have to unify Shu completely. If he fought against the North while the Nanman people rebelled, then the Nanman people would march further and perhaps even press into areas surrounding the capital. So rather than embarking on a Northern Campaign, Zhuge Liang led an army to pacify the south first.

    Ma Su, brother of Ma Liang, proposed the plan that Zhuge Liang should work toward getting the rebels to join him rather than trying to subdue all of them and he took this plan. Zhuge Liang defeated the rebel leader, Meng Huo, seven different times, but released him each time, in order to achieve his genuine surrender.

    Finally, Meng Huo and his wife Zhu Rong, who was said to be a descendant of the fire goddess, agreed to join Zhuge Liang in a genuine acquiescence, and thus Zhuge Liang appointed Meng Huo governor of the region, so he could govern it as he already had, keeping the populace content, and keeping Southern Shu border secure to allow for the future Northern Expeditions. Zhuge Liang obtained resources from the South, and after this, Zhuge Liang made his moves North.

    Zhuge Liang persuaded Jiang Wei, a general of Cao Wei, to defect to the Shu Han during his first Northern Expedition. Jiang would become one of the prominent Shu generals, and inheritor of Zhuge Liang's battle strategies. Jiang Wei continued to carry on Zhuge Liang's ideals and fight for Shu Han after Zhuge Liang's death in 234.

    In Zhuge Liang's later years, he launched expeditions against Cao Wei five times, but all except one failed, usually because his food supplies ran out, rather than failure on the battlefield. His only permanent gain was the addition of the Wudu and Yinping prefectures as well as relocating Wei citizens to Shu on occasion.

    On the fifth expedition, he died of overwork and illness in an army camp in Battle of Wuzhang Plains. (The novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms related a story of Zhuge Liang passing "The 24 Volumes on Military Strategy" to Jiang Wei at the eve of his death.) At Zhuge's recommendation, Liu Chan commissioned Jiang Wan to succeed him as regent. In the novel, Zhuge Liang attempted to extend his lifespan by twelve years, but failed when the ceremony was disturbed near the end when Wei Yan rushed in, announcing the arrival of the Wei army.

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