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Anonymous asked in Education & ReferenceHomework Help · 1 decade ago

what is the greatest achievement of the civil rights movement?

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  • atwil
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    I.The Erosion of Segregation

    a. in the early 1900s, Booker T. Washington urged blacks to temporarily put aside their desire for political equality and focus instead on economic security

    aa. Washington outlined his ideas at the Atlanta Exposition in 1905

    ab. became known as the Atlanta Compromise

    b. W.E.B. Du Bois rejected Washington's ideas

    ba. believed blacks must work for social and political equality

    bb. in 1905, helped organize conference in Niagara Falls, Ontario to discuss racial progress

    bba. this began the Niagara Movement

    bbb. called for:

    "full civil liberties

    "and end to racial discrimination

    "recognition of human brotherhood

    c. some black leaders, frustrated by violence and discrimination, urged blacks to emigrate to Africa

    ca.

    Marcus Garvey organized the Universal ***** Improvement Association to foster black pride and economic power

    cb. Garvey also organized a "Back To Africa" movement

    cba. encouraged blacks to emigrate to Africa to establish a country and government on their own

    d. 1909, Mary White Ovington, a white social worker, helped organize a nation conference on the "***** Question"

    da. from this conference the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) originated

    db. by 1914, the NAACP had 50 branches and 6,000 members

    II.The End of Segregation

    a. May 17, 1954 Supreme Court overturned the decision of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS (1954)

    aa. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the unanimous decision

    ab. said that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal

    ac. followed up with a second ruling in 1955 that said that the South must use "all deliberate speed" to obey the Brown decision

    b. 1954, 101 southern congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto denouncing the court's "unwarranted decision" in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) as a "clear abuse of judicial power" that "substituted the Justices' personal political and social ideas for the established law of the land"

    ba. manifesto vowed to use "all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution"

    bb. Texas senator Lyndon Johnson and two Tennessee senators - Al Gore, Sr. and Estes Kefauver - refused to sign it

    c. 1956, Autherine Lucy became first black student admitted to the University of Alabama

    ca. she was expelled three days later "for her own safety" in response to threats from a mob

    cb. crowds chanted , "Hey, hey, ho, ho, Autherine's got to go!"

    d. 1956, the national headquarters of the NAACP asked the U.S. district court to force immediate and complete desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas

    da. September 1957, the Little Rock, Ark. School Board decided to let nine black students enroll at Central High School

    db. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus refused to let the students in

    dc. September 3, Arkansas Governor Faubus called out the National Guard to prevent desegregation of Central High School

    dd. ordered to remove National Guard, by the Federal Government

    de. President Eisenhower met with Faubus

    dea. Faubus agreed to remove the national guard

    deb. the students were left to the mercy of the angry mob outside the school

    dec. police escorted "the Little Rock Nine" out of the school

    df. September 24, Eisenhower federalized the National Guard and called in 101st Airborne

    dda. guard remained at the school for the rest of the school year

    dg. 1958-1959- Little Rock public schools were closed for the year under Governor Faubus' orders dga. reopened integrated in 1959

    e. December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a Montgomery seamstress, was arrested for refusing her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama

    ea. Martin Luther King, Jr. - a 27-year old Montgomery minister - helped organize a boycott of Montgomery city buses

    eaa. the city's bus system was severely affected

    eab. 80% of bus riders were black (40,000 out of 52,000)

    eb. black community leaders help organize alternative transportation

    eba. black cab drivers would charge bus fare to black customers

    eba. carpools

    ebc. walking

    ec. many whites were angered by the boycott

    ed. the White Citizens Council worked against the boycott

    eda. members included the mayor, city council members, businessmen

    ee. January 30, 1956 King's house was bombed

    ef. 88 black leaders were arrested

    eg. November 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on Montgomery buses is unconstitutional

    eh. the 361 day boycott ended soon after

    ei. the segregationists give up on December 20, 1956

    ej. the boycott marked the beginning of the organized civil rights movement and the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr. to national prominence as a civil-rights leader

    III. Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    a. January 1957, Martin Luther King, Jr. called for a meeting to discuss nonviolent integration

    aa. 60 southern ministers met at an Atlanta conference

    ab. among the attendees were Northern activists Bayard Rustin, Ella Baker, and Stanley Levison, and Southern civil rights veterans Martin Luther King Jr., Fred Shuttlesworth, Ralph Abernathy, C. K. Steele, Joseph Lowery, and William Holmes Borders

    b. shortly after this meeting, the group established a permanent organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    ba. elected King as president

    bb. the goal was to "to redeem the soul of America" through nonviolent resistance based on the teachings of Mohandas Gandhi

    bba. Gandhi was an Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who worked to gain Indian independence from Great Britain

    bc. used sit-ins, boycotts, picket lines

    bd. drew its strength from the black churches of the South, whose ministers were said to mirror the spirit of the community

    IV.Sit-ins

    a. the very first sit-ins occurred in the late 1940s, but were largely unsuccessful

    b. the first successful sit-in of the civil rights movement was in Greensboro, NC in 1960

    ba. February 1, 1960, a group of black college students from North Carolina A&T University were denied service at a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina

    baa. refused to leave

    bb. sparked a wave of other sit-ins in college towns across the South

    bc. the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) [pronounced "snick"], was created on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh in April 1960 to coordinate sit-ins, support their leaders, and publicize their activities

    bca. practiced civil disobedience - intentionally violating laws they felt were immoral

    bcb. slogan was "jail not bail"

    bcba. jail got press coverage and inconvenienced the local officials

    bcc. Stokely Carmichael was a SNCC leader (later becomes involved in black power)

    bd. both black and white students were involved in SNCC

    bda. they ordered food or coffee and stayed until they were served, removed or attacked

    bdb. started with a few people but grew to 300 working in shifts

    be. the idea spread to other places besides drug stores

    bea. swim-ins, pray-ins, theaters, parks

    beb. by the end of 1960, 50,000 young people were involved in sit-ins

    V.Freedom Riders

    a. the Supreme Court declared segregation on interstate buses is unconstitutional

    aa. the ruling was largely ignored in the South

    ab. segregated buses and terminals existed

    ac. 1960, a second ruling reinforced the previous one

    b. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

    ba. civil-rights organization founded (1942) in Chicago by James Farmer

    bb. decided to test the Supreme Court's 1946 decision in the Irene Morgan case, which declared segregated seating of interstate passengers unconstitutional, by starting the Freedom Rides

    c. Freedom Rides

    ca. a group of black and white CORE members would ride interstate buses and would intentionally violate the "for colored" and "for whites" signs on the buses and in the terminals

    cb. chose a route form Washington DC to New Orleans

    cc. left Washington DC on May 4, 1961

    cca. scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17, the seventh anniversary of the Brown decision

    cd. met little resistance in the upper South

    cda. in NC and VA, the signs were taken down

    cdb. put back once the Freedom Riders left

    ce. May 14 [Mother's Day], the Freedom Riders split up into two groups to travel through Alabama

    cea. first group was met by a mob of about 200 angry people in Anniston

    ceb. the mob stoned the bus and slashed the tires

    cec. the bus managed to get away, but when it stopped about six miles out of town to change the tires, it was firebombed

    cf. the second bus was attacked in Birmingham by an angry mob

    cfa. Riders were severely beaten

    cg. the bus company did not want to risk losing another bus to a bombing, and its drivers, who were all white, did not want to risk their lives

    cga. after two days of unsuccessful negotiations, the Freedom Riders, fearing for their safety, flew to New Orleans

    ch. a group of Nashville sit-in students decided to go to Birmingham and continue the Freedom Ride

    cha. the Nashville students traveled to Birmingham and asked the bus company to let them use their buses

    chb. Attorney General Robert Kennedy put pressure on the bus company and the Birmingham police to allow the Freedom Rides to continue

    chc. May 17, the Birmingham police arrested the Nashville Freedom Riders and placed them in protective custody

    chd. in the middle of the night, the police drove the Riders back to Tennessee and dumped them by the side of the highway at the state line

    chda. the Freedom Riders went right back to Birmingham.

    che. the Nashville Freedom Riders left Birmingham on Saturday, May 20

    chf. the Nashville Freedom Riders were beaten in Montgomery

    chfa. Justice Department official John Seigenthaler was beaten unconscious and left in the street for nearly a half an hour after he stopped to help two Freedom Riders

    chg. Robert Kennedy decided to send federal marshals to the city

    chh. Martin Luther King, Jr., flew to Montgomery and held a mass meeting, surrounded by federal marshals, in support of the Freedom Riders

    chha. a mob of several thousand whites surrounded the church

    chhb. at 3 AM, King called Robert Kennedy and Kennedy called Alabama Governor John Patterson

    chhc. Patterson declared martial law and sent in state police and the National Guard

    chi. Robert Kennedy asked for a cooling-off period

    chia. Freedom Riders, however, decided to continue on to Mississippi

    chj. were given good protection as they entered the state, and no mob greeted them at the Jackson bus terminal

    chja. Robert Kennedy and Mississippi Senator James O. Eastland had reached a compromise chjb. Kennedy promised not to use federal troops if there was no mob violence

    chk. the Nashville Freedom Riders were arrested by local olice

    chl. May 25, they were tried

    chla. as their attorney defended them, the judge turned his back

    ci. Freedom Riders never made it to New Orleans

    d. forced the Kennedy administration to take a stand on civil rights

    e. September 22, 1961 - the Interstate Commerce Commission made a ruling against segregated facilities

    ea. the ICC is in the executive branch, so it has the power to enforce its rulings

    eb. the Supreme Court is Judicial and can't enforce rulings

    f. after the Freedom Rides, Robert Kennedy focused on black voter registration

    fa. he hoped it would be less violent

    fb. SNCC workers were trained to help blacks register

    fc. whites respond violently (including the murder of 3 voting rights workers in MS)

    VI.Civil Rights Act of 1964

    a. J. Kennedy had called for civil rights legislation in June, 1963

    b. Johnson wanted Congress to pass Kennedy's Civil Rights bill without changing it

    ba. it passes in the House in February 1964

    c. the Senate tried to filibuster

    ca. it takes a 2/3 vote to end a filibuster

    cb. the Republicans and Northern Democrats allied and ended the filibuster

    d. July 2, 1964 the Civil Rights Act became law

    da. prohibited segregation in all public places

    db. prohibited discrimination in employment

    dc. authorized the attorney general to bring suit to desegregate the public schools

    dd. did not include provisions to strengthen the right to vote

    e. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964)

    f. Katzenbach v. McClung (1964)

    fa. Ollie's Barbeque, in Birmingham, Alabama refused to serve blacks in its dining accommodations

    faa. this was a violation of Civil Rights Act of 1964

    fb. Ollie McClung, the owner, sued claiming that since it did not engage in interstate commerce, Congress had no jurisdiction

    fc. Supreme Court disagreed and ordered Ollie's to desegregate its dining facility

    II.Voting Rights Act of 1965

    a. after the Freedom Rides, Robert Kennedy focused on black voter registration

    aa. he hoped it would be less violent

    b. protection of the right to vote was regarded as a means whereby other basic rights could be secured

    c. 1964, the 24th Amendment banned the use of poll taxes in federal elections

    ca. by 1964, voter registration drives in southern states had become the major thrust of young black activists

    d. Summer of 1964 became known as "Freedom Summer" because of an all out effort to register black voters and increase black voting in Mississippi

    da. SNCC sent volunteers into Mississippi during the summer of 1964, a presidential election year, for a voter registration drive

    daa. SNCC had been trying to register black voters in Mississippi since 1960

    db. Bob Moses outlined the goals of Freedom Summer to prospective volunteers at Stanford University:

    1. to expand black voter registration in the state

    2. to organize a legally constituted "Freedom Democratic Party" that would challenge the whites-only Mississippi Democratic party

    3. to establish "freedom schools" to teach reading and math to black children

    4. to open community centers where indigent blacks could obtain legal and medical assistance

    dc. June 1964, 800 students gathered for a week-long orientation session at Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio

    dca. they were mostly white and young (average age of 21) and from well-to-do families

    dcb. the volunteers had to bring $500 for bail as well as money for living expenses, medical bills, and transportation home

    dcc. SNCC's James Forman told them to be prepared for death, "I may be killed. You may be killed. The whole staff may go."

    dcd. he also told them to go quietly to jail if arrested, because "Mississippi is not the place to start conducting constitutional law classes for the policemen

    dd. June 21, 1964, the day after the first 200 recruits left for Mississippi from Ohio, three workers, including one volunteer, disappeared

    dda. Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney had been taken to jail for speeding charges but were later released

    ddb. the men failed to perform a required check-in with Freedom Summer headquarters

    ddc. during the search for the missing workers, the FBI uncovered the bodies of three lynched blacks who had been missing for some time

    ddd. August 4, the bodies of the three civil rights workers were found in a dam on a farm near Philadelphia, Mississippi

    dde. had all been shot and the one black, James Chaney, had been brutally beaten

    e. Martin Luther King, Jr. chose Selma, Alabama as the site of a voting rights march in March 1965

    ea. decided that demonstrators should march 54 miles from Selma to Montgomery

    eb. Gov. George Wallace tried to ban the march

    f. March 7, 1965 as the demonstrators crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge leading out of Selma, they were ordered to disperse by the State Troopers

    fa. King was not there

    fb. the troopers then attacked marchers with clubs and tear gas, injuring almost one hundred

    fc. this event became known as Bloody Sunday

    g. King led Second march later

    ga. the marchers got to the bridge, saw the Troopers, and king turned the march around

    gb. LBJ had asked him to try to avoid another confrontation

    h. a third march took place without incident

    ha. LBJ federalized the National Guard and had them protect the marchers

    hb. they marched to Montgomery

    i. the events in Selma pushed Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965

    ia. banned literacy tests

    ib. authorized the President to send in federal troops if blacks were not allowed to register

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    I would go with the bus boycott. Rosa Parks was an ordinary woman who was not on a self proclaimed mission to save the world. She did what was right in a respectful and lawful mannor. When she was told to get up the citizens banded together and decided they were not going to take it. The boycot was not violent, not unlawful, but very very effective.

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  • 4 years ago

    that people are treated as people

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