explain the second phase of glycolysis?
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The second half of glycolysis is known as the pay-off phase, characterised by a net gain of the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADH. Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose molecule. This yields 2 NADH molecules and 4 ATP molecules, leading to a net gain of 2 NADH molecules and 2 ATP molecules from the glycolytic pathway per glucose.
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway by which a 6-carbon glucose (Glc) molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). The word glycolysis is derived from Greek glyk (sweet) and lysis (dissolving). It is the initial process of most carbohydrate catabolism, and it serves three principal functions:
The generation of high-energy molecules (ATP and NADH) as cellular energy sources as part of anaerobic respiration.
Production of pyruvate for the citric acid cycle as part of aerobic respiration.
The production of a variety of six- and three-carbon intermediate compounds, which may be removed at various steps in the process for other cellular purposes.
As the foundation of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, glycolysis is one of the most universal metabolic processes known and occurs (with variations) in many types of cells in nearly all organisms. Glycolysis, through anaerobic respiration, is the main energy source in many prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells devoid of mitochondria (e.g. mature erythrocytes) and eukaryotic cells under low oxygen conditions (e.g. heavily exercising muscle or fermenting yeast).
In eukaryotes and prokaryotes, glycolysis takes place within the cytosol of the cell. In plant cells some of the glycolytic reactions are also found in the Calvin cycle which functions inside the chloroplasts. This wide conservation supports the fact that glycolysis has great antiquity; it may have originated in the first prokaryotes, 3.5 billion years ago or more.
The most common and well-known type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, initially elucidated by Gustav Embden and Otto Meyerhof. The term can be taken to include alternative pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway. However, glycolysis will be used here as a synonym for the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.
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