how is nickel produced?
what is the process of producing nickel?
where is nickel usually found?
- rajLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
The extraction and refining of nickel from its ores. Nickel's, properties of strength, toughness, and resistance to corrosion have been used to advantage in alloys since ancient times. Although nickel ranks twenty-fourth in order of abundance of the elements, there are relatively few nickel deposits of commercial importance. Nickel ores are of two generic types, sulfides and laterites. Explorations of the ocean bottoms have revealed vast deposits of manganese oxide nodules which contain significant values of nickel, copper, and cobalt.
Selection of processes for nickel extraction is largely determined by the type of ore to be treated. Sulfide ores are amenable to concentration by such methods as flotation or magnetic separation. The state of combination of nickel in the lateritic ores usually precludes such enrichment, thus requiring treatment of the total ore.
Sulfide ores are first crushed and ground to liberate the mineral values and then subjected to froth flotation or magnetic separation to concentrate the valuable constituents and reject the gangue or rock fraction. The nickel concentrate is treated by pyrometallurgical processes. The major portion undergoes partial roasting in multihearth or fluidized-bed furnaces to eliminate about half of the sulfur and to oxidize the associated iron. The hot calcine, plus flux, is smelted in natural gas-coal-fired reverberatory furnaces operating at about 1200°C to produce a furnace matte, enriched in nickel, and a slag for discard. The furnace matte is transferred to converters and blown with air in the presence of more flux to oxidize the remaining iron and associated sulfur, yielding Bessemer matte containing nickel, copper, cobalt, small amounts of precious metals, and about 22% sulfur. The molten Bessemer matte is cast into 25-ton (22.5-metric ton) molds in which it undergoes controlled slow cooling. After crushing and grinding, the metallics are removed magnetically and treated in a refining complex for recovery of metal values.
The bulk of the nickel originating from lateritic ores is marketed as ferronickel. The process employed is basically simple and involves drying and preheating the ore usually under reducing conditions. The hot charge is then further reduced and melted in an electric-arc furnace, and the crude metal is refined and cast into ferronickel pigs. A substantial amount of nickel is produced from lateritic ores by the nickel sulfide matte technique. In this process the ore is mixed with gypsum or other sulfur-containing material such as high-sulfur fuel oil, followed by a reduction and smelting operation to form matte. The molten furnace matte is upgraded in either conventional or top-blown rotary converters to a high-grade matte, which can be further refined by roasting and reduction to a metallized product.
Nickel is found in abundance in canada
- 1 decade ago
they make it in the money-making factory or whatever it's called of the US.