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A New Sodium Hyaluronate The concentration of HA in rooster combs and human umbilical cords is very high, reaching 7500 mg/L and 4100 mg/L, respectively, in the early 1980s,Balazs and coworkers developed a proccdure to isolate,purify and... show more A New Sodium Hyaluronate
The concentration of HA in rooster
combs and human umbilical cords is very high, reaching 7500 mg/L and
4100 mg/L, respectively, in the early 1980s,Balazs and coworkers developed a
proccdure to isolate,purify and identify hyaluronic acid from rooster combs and
human umbilical cords. Since then, HA has been produced from rooster combs
at industrial scale. However, the rooster comb-based extraction process is faced
by a growing concern over the use of animal-derived products for technical
and especially biomedical applicavions.Hence, microbial fermentation has
emerged as a new technique for the production of HA.
The bacterial production of HA involving a Streptococcus zooepidemicus strain was first described in 1989,
giving rise to the first commercializa-tion of biosynthetic HA. Nevertheless,
streptococci are pathogenic in nature. In addition, they are fastidious lactic acid
bacteria with demanding requirements such as media enriched in proteins
during the fermentation. The presence of bacterial endotoxins, chondroitin
sulfates, proteins, nucleic acids and heavy metals in HA from streptococcal

fermentation or rooster combs has alsobeen reported. Finally, both extracted
HA and microbial HA are purified using harsh organic solvents.

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