Chemistry Question about Polar Covalent Bonds?
I need help with the following question:
Which of the following molecules contain polar covalent bonds?
a. phosphorus, P4
b. oxygen, O2
c. ozone, O3
d. hydrogen fluoride, HF
How can I determine whether they contain polar covalent bonds or not? Thanks in advance!
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
a polar bond is one which the shared electron, making the bond, is closer to one atom. A bond between two identical atoms is non-polar because the atoms have the same electronegativity.
Electronegativity is the affinity for an electron. Fluorine is the most electronegative element and Francium the least.
Hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2.2 and fluorine 3.98, prompting the electrons to be closer to fluorine, consequently making the hydrogen partially positive and fluorine slightly negative.Source(s): I'm a chemist
- 1 decade ago
HF cntains polar covalent bonds.
it is nearly ionic in nature because of strong electronegetivity of flourine and low capacity of that of hydrogen.so there's strong attraction of the shared pair towards the flourine and literally flourine engulfs the entire shared pair all and sundry.
so there's polaritu inHF and the dipole moment is towards flourine.
in the same way ozone is also polar ,though bonding is between same kind of molecules .this is because whenm we draw the structure of ozone ,we can find that 2 of the oxygen atoms have + and - charges after the distribution of the electrons between the three O atoms.this is called formal charge[because one O atom has in effect gained an extra electron after bond formation and another one has lost an electron and the third has neither gained nor lost any electron,that is it has 6 electrons around it,so it has no charge]
so with this theory in mind we can conclude that the Oatom with +charge will attract the shared pair towards it and that -charge will repel the shared pair of electrons .so there will be a net polarity.
P4 and O2 are non polar or covalent under normal condition.
to find whether a compound is polar or not ,first draw the structure of the molecule with the electron distribution and then find the formal charges.also look for bonding between different kinds of atoms[mostly polar]. the main criterian of identification of polatrity will be the difference in the electronegetivity of the bonded atoms.
- 1 decade ago
Flouride is more electronegative than hydrogen therefore the HF bond is polar with dipole moment that goes in the direction of Flourine, the more electronegative atom.
The Answer is D
A, B, and C are wrong because they are bonded to the themselves therefore their bonds cannot be polar. One atom in the bond has to be more electronegative than the other for there to be polarity or one molecule has to be hogging all the electrons.