The short answer is, "No."
In the late 1800's, when Freud was developing his theory of personality, psychology was more intuitive than scientific. One hint of that is the terms that he chose to identify the three elements that make up one's mind, brain, intellect, etc. (To Freud, the terms all meant the same thing.) "Id" is Latin for "it."
"Ego" is Latin for "I." And, "superego" means something greater than I (myself).
So, even the terms, themselves, are vague.
According to Freud, the only part of the personality that was present at birth was the id. Carl Jung didn't use that term, but he had the same idea, called the "collective unconscious."
Freud said that the "ego" develops out of the "id" because the id only understands the "reality of the mind." So, the ego is formed to test the "real world" reality in order to satisfy the id.
However, if people consisted only of id and ego, there could never be such a thing as civilization. Every time we desired something, our ego would just take it or do it. For example, if we suddenly got the urge for sex, we'd just jump on the first person we happened to see. No civilization has ever operated in that fashion.
Consequently, we gradually develop a superego, which puts restraints on the cravings of the id. In a "well balanced" personality, the ego is transformed into a kind of management system that literally balances the demands of the id with the constraints of the superego, which is an internalization of the social mores. (One of Freud's books was titled, "Civilization and Its Discontents," signifying that the very existence of civilization puts unwanted restraints on the individual.)
Obviously, none of the components described by Freud (id, ego, and superego) are the result of empirical study. Being non-empirical, they cannot be tested.
Various therapies that have developed from Freudian theory have attempted empirical tests of the results of treatment. However, none of them would pass the test of empiricism. Carl Rogers and a graduate assistant developed a test of self-esteem. They showed a slight positive correlation in before therapy and after therapy results. But, the major criticism is that, during the therapy sessions, the subjects learned how they SHOULD feel about themselves and responded accordingly. That doesn't mean that they changed.
That was the long answer. Hope it helps.