The process of planning or determining managerial strategy and goal setting can be broken down into five major components.1.Identifying what the organization might do. This can be determined from the environment, largely in terms of the market opportunity.2.Appraising what the organization can do in terms of its resources and competences.3.Deciding what the organization wants to do in terms of the personal values and aspirations of its key executives.4.Determining what the organization should do in terms of its acknowledged obligations to segments of society other than stockholders.5.Matching the opportunities, capabilities, values and obligations to society at an acceptable level of risks in the pursuit of organizational goals.
The first four components of strategy are much easier than reconciling their implications in a final choice of purpose. The limitations of strategy principally involve the inherent difficulties of conceiving a viable pattern of goals and policies and implementing them wisely. The strategic decision is concerned with the long-term development of the enterprise.
Organization objectives, strategies, and policies are not mutually exclusive components of the managerial process but are highly interdependent and inseparable. One cannot talk about attaining objectives without hearing the policy guidelines to follow.
Similarly, a program strategy cannot be determined without first knowing the objectives to be pursued and the policies to be followed. Unfortunately, many semantic differences exist with reference to the meanings of the terms “objective”, “strategy”, and “policy”. The managerial process, however, hinges upon predetermined organizational goals. The goal-setting process should begin at the top with a clear statement of the organization’s purpose and should cascade down through the hierarchy. The MBO process described in Chapter 9 is an example of such a system at work, and represents a practical way of implementing strategy through operational objectives.
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
計畫或者確定的經理的策略和目標設定的過程可能被分解為5 個主要的組成部分。 1.鑑定組織可以做的。 這可能基本上用市場機會模式根據環境決定。 2.估價組織能就它的資源和能力而言做的。 3.決定組織想要就它的關鍵執行者的個人價值和願望而言做什麼。 4.確定組織應該就對除了股東以外其他社會的部分的它承認的義務而言做什麼。 5.和機會，能力，價值和義務在社會在一危險在機構化目標的追逐內的可接受水準相配。 策略的前4 個組成部分比在目的的最後的選擇裡使他們的暗示和解容易得多。 對策略的限制主要與設想一個目標和政策的可行的模型和明智貫徹它們的固有的困難有關。 戰略性決定涉及企業的長期的發展。 組織目標，策略，和政策相互不是經理的過程的獨佔組成部分，但是非常互相依存和分不開。 一個人不能談論實現目標而沒有聽到要遵循的政策指南。 與此類似，沒有第一個知道目標被奉行和被跟隨的政策，一個計畫策略不能被確定。 令人遺憾,關於術語bjective trategy 和olicy 的意思,很多語義的差別存在經理的過程，不過，視預先決定的機構化的目標而定。 目標設定過程應該用一個組織目的的清楚的陳述在頂開始和應該向下串聯全面階層。 MBO 處理在9章描述一這樣的一個系統在工作時的例子，並且描述一實現策略透過操作目標的實際路。 .
2006-10-26 21:17:21 補充：