Who are the rothschilds, and why are tehy never talked about???



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  • 1 decade ago
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    they are talked about they are one of teh oldest and most distinguished banking families in europe.Their success began with Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812). Born in the ghetto (called "Judengasse") of Frankfurt-am-Main, he developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in European cities to conduct business. An essential part of Mayer Rothschild's strategy for future success was to keep control of their businesses in family hands, allowing them to maintain full discretion about the size of their wealth and their business achievements. Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family by carefully arranged marriages between closely related family members. His sons were:

    Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773-1855) - Frankfurt

    Salomon Mayer Rothschild (1774-1855) - Vienna

    Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) - London

    Calmann Mayer Rothschild (1788-1855) - Naples

    James Mayer Rothschild (1792-1868) - Paris

    The Rothschild coat of arms contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolizing the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, a reference to Psalm 127. The family motto appears below the shield, in Latin, Concordia, Integritas, Industria, (Unity, Integrity, Diligence). The family name means "Red Shield"; one can be seen in the center of the coat of arms.

    Also see

    Rothschild banking family of Naples

    Rothschild banking family of England

    Rothschild banking family of Austria

    Rothschild banking family of France

    Rothschild banking family of Germany

    [edit] British war effort and Napoleon

    The basis for the Rothschild fortune was laid during the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars. From 1813 to 1815, the Rothschild family was instrumental in the financing of the British war effort, handling the shipment of bullion to the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal and Spain, as well as arranging the payment of British financial subsidies to their Continental allies. Through the commissions earned on these transactions, the Rothschild fortune grew enormously.

    In the early 19th century Rothschild set up a Europe-wide network of messengers and carrier pigeon stations, gathering information that could affect his investments. He soon garnered a reputation for being first with the news.

    According to popular legend, when the Battle of Waterloo was being fought in June 1815, other speculators watched Rothschild's stocks in an attempt to guess who would win. Shortly after the battle ended, and long before anyone else knew who was the victor, he began selling stocks. Everyone assumed this meant Napoleon had won and Europe was lost. Panic selling ensued. When prices crashed, Rothschild bought everything in sight and made a profit.

    [edit] Elevated to the Nobility

    In 1816, four of the brothers were each granted the title of baron or Freiherr by Austrian Emperor Francis I. Nathan was elevated in 1818. As such, some members of the family used "de" or "von" Rothschild to acknowledge the grant of nobility. In 1885, Nathan Mayer Rothschild II (1840-1915) of the London branch of the family, was granted the peerage title Baron Rothschild in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

    Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the Suez Canal. After amassing huge fortunes, the name Rothschild became synonymous with banking and great wealth, and the family was renowned for its art collecting, as well as for its philanthropy. Since 1916, members of the family have been vacationing at Megève, an exclusive ski resort in the Haute Savoie département of France, whose restaurants are among the best in the country. However, even in recreation the Rothschilds find a way to utilize their entrepreneurial skills: they own five of the village's gourmet restaurants.

    [edit] Zionism

    The Rothschilds were supporters of the State of Israel, and Baron Edmond James de Rothschild was a patron of the first settlement in Palestine at Rishon-LeZion. In 1917 Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild was the addressee of the Balfour Declaration, which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. As prominent Jews active in politics as well as business, the Rothschild family has been a target for anti-semitism throughout its history. Many family members were persecuted by the Nazis, and one, Elisabeth de Rothschild, died in Ravensbrück concentration camp; she was a Rothschild only by marriage, having been born a Catholic.

    In 1901, with no male heir to take it on, the Frankfurt House closed its doors after more than a century in business. It was not until 1989 that they returned when N M Rothschild & Sons, the British investment arm, plus Bank Rothschild AG, the Swiss branch, set up a representative banking office in Frankfurt.

    [edit] French branches

    There are two branches of the family connected to France. The first was son James Mayer de Rothschild (1792-1868), known as "James", who established de Rothschild Frères in Paris. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railroads and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. James' sons Gustave de Rothschild and Alphonse James de Rothschild continued the banking tradition and were responsible for raising the money to pay the compensation demanded by the occupying Prussian army in the 1870s Franco-Prussian War. Ensuing generations of the Paris Rothschild family remained involved in the family business, becoming a major force in international investment banking. The onslaught of competition from publicly traded banking giants from the United States and the European Union, who came with enormous capital at their disposal, resulted in the 2003 merger of the privately owned Rothschild banking house in France with its British banking cousins to create a single umbrella holding company.

    The second French branch was founded by Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812-1870). Born in London he was the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family, Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836). In 1850, Nathaniel Rothschild moved to Paris, ostensibly to work with his uncle, James Mayer Rothschild. However, in 1853 Nathaniel acquired Château Brane Mouton, a vineyard in Pauillac in the Gironde département. Nathaniel Rothschild renamed the estate, Château Mouton Rothschild and it would become one of the best known labels in the world. In 1868, Nathaniel's uncle, James Mayer de Rothschild acquired the neighboring Chateau Lafite vineyard.

    The Paris business suffered a near death blow in 1982 when the Socialist government of François Mitterrand nationalized and renamed it Compagnie Européenne de Banque. Baron David de Rothschild, then 39, decided to stay and rebuild, creating a new entity Rothschild & Cie Banque with just three employees and $1 million in capital. Today, the Paris operation has 22 partners and accounts for a significant chunk of the global business.

    [edit] Austrian branch

    In Vienna, Salomon Mayer Rothschild established a bank in the 1820s and the family became admired and respected citizens. The Austrian Rothschilds were later elevated to the nobility by the Austrian emperor for their services. The crash of 1929 brought problems and Baron Louis von Rothschild attempted to shore up the Creditanstalt, Austria's largest bank, to prevent its collapse. Nevertheless, during World War II they had to surrender their bank to the Nazis and flee the country. Their Rothschild palaces were confiscated and plundered by the Nazis. Some of these family members sought sanctuary in the United States. In 1999 the government of Austria agreed to return to the Rothschild family some 250 art treasures looted by the Nazis and absorbed into state museums after the War.

    [edit] Italian branch

    The Unification of Italy in 1861 eventually brought about the closure of their Naples bank.

    [edit] Modern business

    The company does most of its business as an M&A advisor. According to the Dealogic league tables it has a strong position in Paris and London but remains a relatively weak player in New York City. The group's ranking is number 4 among European advisers (by announced mergers and acquisitions year-to-date October 2004) with 160 deals with a value of $137.08 billion, and globally as number 9 with 197 deals with a value of $150.50 billion. Goldman Sachs leads in both Europe and globally with 258 deals worth $448.98 billion.

    The annual revenue of the Rothschild group (www.rothschild.com) is €828 million with a shareholder equity of €1 billion (2003). To compete more effectively with the New York giants the Rothschild groups main branches in Paris, London, and New York merged into one holding company, Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG, under David de Rothschild's leadership. David de Rothschild is opposed to an IPO, much like competitor Lazard's former chairman Michel David-Weill, although Lazard finally went public in 2005 after Wall Street banker Bruce Wasserstein entered the company. 20% of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG was sold in 2005 to Jardine Strategic which is a subsidiary of Jardine, Matheson & Co. of Hong Kong.

    Simon de Rothschild, the son of Robert de Rothschild, heads the Canadian Northern Railway, and its subsiduaries, as well as a number of mining and industrial operations.

    Another descendant of James, Edmond de Rothschild (1926-1997) founded the LCF Rothschild Group, based in Geneva, which today extends to 15 countries across the world. The group's primary businesses include Banque Privée Edmond de Rothschild S.A., La Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild S.A., and COGIFRANCE. Although this Group is primarily a financial entity, specialising in asset management and private banking, its activities also cover winemaking (with estates in Bordeaux, South Africa and Argentina), mixed farming, luxury hotels and yacht racing. The LCF Rothschild Group is currently presided over by Benjamin de Rothschild, Baron Edmond's son.

    Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild is the Chairman of RIT Capital Partners, the UK's largest investment trus

    Lord Rothchild was created a Lord of the United Kingdom,Walter inherited the peerage from his father Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild in 1915. He had no children, and his younger brother Charles Rothschild had predeceased him, so the title was inherited by his nephew (Nathaniel Mayer) Victor Rothschild.

    The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. The letter stated the position, agreed at a British Cabinet meeting on October 31, 1917, that the British government supported Zionist plans for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine, with the condition that nothing should be done which might prejudice the rights of existing communities there. It is also interesting to note that later Joseph Stalin set up the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Asiatic Russia, which still exists today.

    By the standards of international diplomacy, the Balfour Declaration of 1917 is an amazing document, succinctly summarized by Arthur Koestler who wrote that the declaration amounted to "one nation solemnly promised to a second nation the country of a third." Beyond the textual content of the Balfour Declaration - it was made up of just three sentences and some 125 words in total - its significance lies in how it came to pass and what impact it had both on the course of World War I and subsequent events culminating in the formation of Israel.

    Perhaps the Balfour Declaration can best be appreciated as part of the increasing escalation, both military and political, between the Allies and Central Powers over the course of late-1916 and 1917. By late 1916, the Central Powers, especially Germany, were suffering mightily from the deprivations caused by the Allied blockade. In February of 1917, Germany - in response to this blockade - initiated its own counter-blockade of Britain and attempted to enforce it by a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare.

    A month later, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated signaling the eventual withdrawal of Russia as an effective adversary to Germany and Austria-Hungary. From the perspective of the Triple Entente, the potential consequences unfolding in Russia were grave. Beyond the loss of a powerful counterforce on Germany’s eastern flank, a defeated or neutral Russia offered the Central Powers the possibility of evading the Allied blockade by importing foodstuffs and war material directly from Russia.

    Although the United States had voted to enter the war in April of 1917, it was not projected to deliver troops in numbers on the continent until Summer of the following year. Additionally the effects on Britain of U-boat sinkings were significant and growing, ramping up to an average of over 500,000 tons per month during the Summer of 1917. After three years of continuous slaughter and with the specter of German troops, freed from assignments in Russia, soon arriving on the Western Front, Britain found herself in a somewhat desperate situation by the Autumn of 1917. A very real question at this time for the Entente leadership was whether the arrival of the Americans would be in time to stave off an Allied defeat.

    The war, in a grisly virtual stalemate at this point in time, found both Germany and Britain actively making overtures to the Zionist Movement in order to enlist the resources of this group in assisting their cause. Both sides were well aware of the significant Zionist influence within Bolshevik Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States. Further, Britain recognized that the natural sentiment of many European Jews was, in fact, with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Following the logic that “my enemy’s enemy is my friend” European Jews tended to view the Central Powers favorably given their role in defeating the overtly anti-Semitic Tsarist government in Russia. Well aware of this sentiment, Imperial Germany during this same period was actively courting the Zionist movement, both domestically and internationally, but was circumscribed in this effort by the fact that Palestine was then a component of the Ottoman Empire – a key ally of Germany within the Central Powers.

    By the Summer of 1917, the world had been at war for three years. All major belligerents were facing the common issues of unbelievable casualty levels, the deprivations of an increasingly effective blockade, dwindling financial resources and the unthinkable specter of actually losing this war. No tactic or strategy was beyond consideration if it offered a reasonable chance to gain advantage over the other side.

    At the same time the Zionist movement was very active in all forms of negotiations to convince one or more of the major powers to support the goals of the Zionist movement - namely support for Jewish migration to Palestine. Active negotiations were going on in Constantinople, Berlin, Paris, London, New York and Washington. As events turned out, Zionist efforts first proved successful in London.

    In December of 1916, the leaders of the British government, locked in a power struggle, resigned and King George V requested a new government be formed. Both the incoming Prime Minster, David Lloyd George, and the new Foreign Minister, Arthur Balfour, were sympathetic to the Zionist cause. Before the war, Lloyd George had served as legal counsel to the Zionists and was familiar with Chaim Weizmann in his previous role as Minister of Munitions. Immediately Zionist efforts focused on London and the British government. Over the course of 1917 there ensued within the British government a protracted and fierce debate involving both Zionist and anti-Zionist Jews over if and how the British government would formally support the Zionist cause.

    The anti-Zionists were led by Secretary of State for India Edwin Montagu who viewed support for Zionism, by non-Jews, as a form of antisemitism because it would relocate the center of Jewish life to Palestine and therefore away from the various European and American capitals. There were also fears amongst this group that formal support for Zionism, during the war, could trigger increased anti-semitic activities, specifically within the Ottoman Empire, thereby placing Turkish Jews in harm's way. This debate raged on through the Summer and Autumn of 1917, eventually including members of the American Zionist movement and government, with the pro-Zionists eventually winning the day.

    Given this context then, the Balfour Declaration of 1917 can be seen as an effective tool for Britain to serve multiple ends. Seen through British eyes and from the perspective of late 1917, it would serve as a powerful propaganda tool aimed at the world’s Jewish community in hopes of securing additional financial support – cash contributions, loans, grants - to fill the depleted coffers of the Allied governments. Secondly, it would effectively preempt Germany’s ongoing efforts to enlist both informal and formal support from the Zionist movement. In a very real sense whichever side issued such a declaration first would effectively preclude any positive impact of the other side's efforts.

    With Russia less than a month away from signing an armistice with Germany, it also delivered a targeted message to the Russian Bolsheviks. At this point in the revolution, the Bolsheviks as a group were, if not predominantly, then by a significant plurality, of Jewish extraction[citation needed]. The message of the Balfour Declaration then, to this group, was that support of Germany, post-armistice, would work directly against the goals of the Zionist cause – as outlined in the Balfour Declaration. Through this tactic, David Lloyd George aimed to keep Germany and a newly-Bolshevik Russia at arm’s length in hope of denying Russian trade and resources to Germany and keeping a maximum number of German troops tied down in the East (and therefore not available for deployment on the Western Front). It was a calculated gamble. Although many, perhaps most Bolsheviks were in fact Jewish[citation needed], it is also true that a large proportion of Jewish Bolsheviks were not, in fact, Zionists. At the end of the day, this gamble paid off for Britain as the Bolshevik faction within Russia did not overtly cooperate with Germany after the Tsar's abdication. [1]

    Finally, the messages within the Balfour Declaration could not help but sow seeds of doubts within the minds of those ruling the Central Powers as to where the loyalty of their own domestic Jewish populations lay. For the Jews of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the Balfour Declaration put at direct odds their loyalty to state against any Zionist sentiments that they may have harbored. In weighing the actual impact of the Balfour Declaration on the outcome of the war, one must consider both the relative minority of Jews in central Europe who were sympathetic to the Zionist cause with the reality that the Central Powers’ prospects, in terms of winning the war, declined steadily from the point of the declaration's issue to their ultimate defeat ending the war.

    Language from the Declaration was later incorporated into the Sèvres peace treaty with Turkey and the Mandate for Palestine. The declaration, a typed letter signed in ink by Balfour, reads as follows:

    Foreign Office

    November 2nd, 1917

    Dear Lord Rothschild,

    I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

    "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

    I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

    Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour

    British interest in Zionism dates to the rise in importance of the British Empire's South Asian enterprises in the early 19th century, concurrent with the Great Game and planning for the Suez Canal. As early as 1840, Lord Palmerston (later to become Prime Minister) wrote:

    There exists at the present time among the Jews dispersed over Europe a strong notion that the time is approaching when their nation is to return to Palestine. It would be of manifest importance to the Sultan to encourage the Jews to return and settle in Palestine because the wealth that they would bring with them would increase the resources of the Sultan's dominions, and the Jewish people if returning under the sanction and protection at the invitation of the Sultan would be a check upon any future evil designs of Egypt or its neighbours. I wish to instruct your Excellency strongly to recommend to the Turkish government to hold out every just encouragement to the Jews of Europe to return to Palestine.[1]

    Before the end of World War I, Palestine was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The British, under General Allenby during the Arab Revolt stirred up by the British intelligence officer T. E. Lawrence, defeated the Turkish forces in 1917 and occupied Palestine and Syria. The land was administered by the British for the remainder of the war. The British military administration ended starvation with the aid of food supplies from Egypt, successfully fought typhus and cholera epidemics and significantly improved the water supply to Jerusalem. They reduced corruption by paying the Arab and Jewish judges higher salaries. Communications were improved by new railway and telegraph lines.

    The United Kingdom was granted control of Palestine by the Versailles Peace Conference which established the League of Nations in 1919 and appointed Herbert Samuel, a former Postmaster General in the British cabinet, who was instrumental in drafting the Balfour Declaration, as its first High Commissioner in Palestine. During World War I the British had made two promises regarding territory in the Middle East. Britain had promised the local Arabs, through Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East, in exchange for their supporting the British; and Britain had promised to create and foster a Jewish national home as laid out in the Balfour Declaration, 1917.

    The British had, in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, previously promised the Hashemite family lordship over most land in the region in return for their support in the Great Arab Revolt during World War I. In 1920 at the Conference of Sanremo, Italy, the League of Nations mandate over Palestine was assigned to Britain. This territory at this time included all of what would later become the State of Israel, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, a part of the Golan Heights, and the Kingdom of Jordan. The majority of the approximately 750,000 people in this multi-ethnic region were Arabic-speaking Muslims, including a Bedouin population (estimated at 103,331 at the time of the 1922 census [2] and concentrated in the Beersheba area and the region south and east of it), as well as Jews (who comprised some 11% of the total) and smaller groups of Druze, Syrians, Sudanese, Circassians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Hejazi Arabs.

    A stamp from Palestine under the British MandateIn June 1922 the League of Nations passed the Palestine Mandate. The Palestine Mandate was an explicit document regarding Britain's responsibilities and powers of administration in Palestine including "secur[ing] the establishment of the Jewish national home", and "safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine".

    The document defining Britain's obligations as Mandate power copied the text of the Balfour Declaration concerning the establishment of a Jewish homeland:

    His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

    Many articles of the document specified actions in support of Jewish immigration and political status. However, it was also stated that in the large, mostly arid, territory to the east of the Jordan River, then called Transjordan, Britain could 'postpone or withhold' application of the provisions dealing with the 'Jewish National Home'. At the Cairo Conference of 1921 a government under the Hashemite Emir Abdullah who had just been displaced from ruling the Hejaz was established in Transjordan. In September 1922, the British government presented a memorandum to the League of Nations stating that Transjordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement, and this memorandum was approved on 11 September. From that point onwards, Britain administered the part west of the Jordan as Palestine (which was 23% of the entire territory), and the part east of the Jordan as Transjordan (constituting 77% of the mandated territories). Technically they remained one mandate but most official documents referred to them as if they were two separate mandates. Transjordan remained under British control until 1946.

    In 1923 Britain transferred a part of the Golan Heights to the French Mandate of Syria, in exchange for the Metula region.

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