KATE0327 asked in 科學生物學 · 1 decade ago

我需要panda principle的詳細資料(贈20點)

我需要panda principle熊貓原理的詳細資料

麻煩ㄧ下 謝謝

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  • 1 decade ago
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    The panda bear has no thumbs. Rather, it has ten fingers and a

    fleshy lump on the side of each hand. It uses these lumps as

    opposing digits to grip its meals. These ‘thumbs’ are not very good

    at their jobs. The panda would do much better if it had real thumbs,

    with bones and joints. The problem is, some quirk of evolution has

    never given the panda this option. Its ‘fifth fingers’ are loafing

    about on the end of each hand, while a poor cousin does their dirty

    work. Why hasn’t evolution forced the lazy fingers to locate

    themselves more efficiently? The answer is the Panda Principle.

    Ecologist Stephen Jay Gould, who identified the concept,6 argues

    that the ‘survival of the fittest’ is not a universal principle. An

    inefficient organism (or a part of it) can survive if it can prevent

    competing organisms gaining access to key resources. His

    favourite analogy is the QWERTY keyboard – the one we all use.

    This was designed to slow typists to prevent the jamming of

    mechanical typewriters. A faster keyboard has been designed –

    the Dvorak. But can it gain a foothold? Not while the QWERTY

    board hogs all the resources (such as manufacturing and

    distribution systems and our training).

    Isn’t it odd that we know of a better way but will not implement it?

    What other inefficient systems are in operation because they were

    ‘first’ and currently hog the resources? Before you get too excited,

    ask whether is it ‘right’ to remove these inefficiencies. Consider

    that the Panda Principle applies to New Zealand’s fauna.

    Introduced animals that gained access to resources so much more

    effectively than the locals caused numerous extinctions. The trick

    is, an ecosystem can operate very happily at a local optimum.

    Bring in a new set of creatures that operate at, perhaps, a global

    optimum (mice are globally more effective than our local weta),

    and look at what gets lost.

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