1. (May, 1992): the realization that one already is a part of some ultimate cosmic process and … a commitment to participation in that process.
2. (Hayes et al., 2001): Openness “to experiencing your own experience when you experience it – without trying to control it, avoid it, escape from it, and so on”.
經過多方搜尋，比較可以確認 Willingness vs. Willfulness 概念的比較源於下面這一本書：
● May, G. (1982). Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Gerald G. May (1982):
「Willingness implies a surrendering of one's self-separateness, an entering-into, an immersion in the deepest processes of life itself. It is a realization that one already is a part of some ultimate cosmic process and it is a commitment to participate in that process.
In contrast, willfulness is the setting of oneself apart from the fundamental essence of life in an attempt to master, direct, control, or otherwise manipulate existence.
More simply, willing-ness is saying yes to the mystery of being alive in each moment. Willfulness is saying no, or perhaps more commonly, "Yes, but..."」（p.6）
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- boboLv 51 decade ago
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- CHOULv 51 decade ago
請問大家，什麼是Willingness?自動自發 有主動,績極的意思Source(s): 自己