how is the voting pattern and selection process for oscar ?
and can any film maker send his film for the oscars independently ?
- yyyLv 51 decade agoFavorite Answer
Academy membership may be obtained by a competitive nomination (however, the nominee must be invited to join) or a member may submit a name. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although past press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. If a person not yet a member is nominated in more than one category in a single year, he/she must choose which branch to join when he/she accepts membership.
Today, according to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film has to open in the previous calendar year (from midnight January 1 to midnight December 31) in Los Angeles County, California, to qualify. Rule 2 states that a film must be "feature-length" (defined as at least 40 minutes) to qualify for an award (except for Short Subject awards, of course). It must also exist either on a 35mm or 70mm film print OR on a 24fps or 48fps progressive scan digital film print with a native resolution no lower than 1280x720.
The members of the various branches nominate those in their respective fields (actors are nominated by the actors' branch, etc.) while all members may submit nominees for Best Picture. The winners are then determined by a second round of voting in which all members are then allowed to vote in all categories.
The major awards are given out at a live televised ceremony, most commonly in March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. It is estimated that over one billion people watch the Academy Awards either live or recorded each year (Levy 2003).
The Awards show was first televised on NBC in 1953. NBC broadcast them until 1960 when the ABC Network took over the broadcasting job until 1971 when NBC reassumed the broadcast. ABC again took over broadcast duties in 1976 and is under contract to do so through the year 2014.
After more than fifty years of being held in late March or early April, the ceremonies were moved up to late February or early March starting in 2004, possibly to avoid viewership conflicts with other TV events such as the NCAA Basketball Tournament.
The awards event itself is a National Special Security Event by the United States Department of Homeland Security.
Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received five honorary Oscars for contributions to cinema and humanitarian work.
Academy Award of Merit
Some awards are for a film as a whole, some are for an aspect of a film.
Best Picture – 1928 to present
Best Leading Actor – 1928 to present
Best Leading Actress – 1928 to present
Best Supporting Actor – 1936 to present
Best Supporting Actress – 1936 to present
Best Animated Feature – 2001 to present
Best Art Direction – 1928 to present (also called Interior or Set Decoration)
Best Cinematography – 1928 to present
Best Costume Design – 1948 to present
Best Director – 1928 to present
Best Documentary Feature
Best Documentary Short Subject
Best Film Editing – 1935 to present
Best Foreign Language Film – 1947 to present
Best Makeup – 1981 to present
Best Original Song – 1934 to present
Best Original Score – 1934 to present
Best Animated Short Film – 1931 to present
Best Live Action Short Film – 1931 to present
Best Sound Mixing – 1930 to present
Best Sound Editing – 1963 to present
Best Visual Effects – 1939 to present
Best Adapted Screenplay – 1928 to present
Best Original Screenplay – 1940 to present
Best Assistant Director – 1933 to 1937
Best Dance Direction – 1935 to 1937, 1962
Best Engineering Effects – 1928 only
Best Score -- Adaptation or Treatment
Best Original Musical or Comedy Score
Best Short Film - Color – 1936 and 1937
Best Short Film - Live Action - 2 Reels – 1936 to 1956
Best Short Film - Novelty – 1932 to 1935
Best Original Story – 1928 to 1956
Best Unique and Artistic Quality of Production – 1928 only
In the first year of the awards, the Best Director category was split into separate Drama and Comedy categories. At times, the Best Original Score category has been split into separate Drama and Comedy/Musical categories. Today, the Best Original Score category is one category. From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Cinematography, Art Direction, and Costume Design awards were split into separate categories for black and white and color films.
These awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole.
Academy Honorary Award – 1928 to present
Academy Special Achievement Award
Academy Award, Scientific or Technical – 1931 to present at three levels
The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award – 1938 to present
The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
Gordon E. Sawyer Award
Academy Juvenile Award – 1934 to 1954
The Academy Awards, especially in recent years, have been the target of a considerable amount of criticism and controversy.
Critics have noted that many Best Picture Academy Award winners in the past have not stood the test of time. Several of these films (Cecil B. DeMille's The Greatest Show on Earth being the example often cited), they argue, have aged poorly and have little of the impact they did on initial release. In another example, critics have pointed out how poorly Ben-Hur, the 1959 winner, and, at the time, one of the highest-grossing movies ever made has lasted compared to other movies from 1959 such as Rio Bravo and Imitation of Life . (Interestingly though, Ben-Hur is currently #121 on IMDb's top 250 list, while Rio Bravo and Imitation of Life don't appear there at all.)
Furthermore, several of the nominees which have lost Best Picture are regarded as masterpieces by many critics and filmmakers. The most obvious example is Citizen Kane, a film that was nominated for nine Oscars but won only one (Best Original Screenplay), and has since come to be regarded by movie buffs, academics and filmmakers as one of the greatest films of all time. Other examples include A Clockwork Orange, Apocalypse Now, Taxi Driver, Fargo and others.
A related criticism is that actors and actresses who came to prominence primarily in comedy films (and other genres) have to succeed in dramatic films in order to be seriously regarded by the Academy. Only five actors have won Best Actor for playing a comedic role.
Several directors who have been acknowledged as masters (such as Orson Welles, Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Robert Altman, and Martin Scorsese) have never won the Best Director award.
A more objective criticism is the increasing influence of lobbying for specific films by the producers and companies behind those films, so that the awards tend to reflect lobbying efforts at the partial expense of reflecting the merits of the movie.
To date, no Academy Award category for stunts, stuntmen or stunt coordination has been used.
The Academy's voting process has been cited for many flaws, including the fact that assistants to Academy Members often vote on the official Oscar ballots
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