poc asked in Science & MathematicsPhysics · 1 decade ago

what are the 3 types of equilibrium?

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    These are:Stable,unstable,neutral

    Another type of classification: static ,dynamic

  • curd
    Lv 4
    3 years ago

    Types Of Equilibrium

  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

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    what are the 3 types of equilibrium?

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  • 1 decade ago

    picture a cone.....

    1. neutral....when the cone is lying on its side and if you push it a bit, it will go round and round and round!

    2. stable....when the cone is up straight, and the wide part is doing the supporting. if you give it a push, it will move, i guesse but it wont topple over!

    3. unstable.....when the cone is up straight, but the thin side is doing the supporting, if you give it a little push, it will definately fall!

    Hope my explanation helped!

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Equilibrium constants of all types are usually given the symbol K, and unless further qualified this symbol has no more specific meaning. However, there are several common specific forms of equilibrium constant. Each of these is designated by a unique subscript.

    Ka, the ionization constant of an acid

    The symbol Ka represents the ionization constant of an acid in an acid-base equilibrium. Unless otherwise stated, this constant applies to an equilibrium in dilute aqueous solution and to the equilibrium whose form is, for an arbitrary acid HA, HA(aq) + H2O(l) <--> H3O+(aq) + A-(aq). Therefore by definition Ka = [H3O+][A-]/[HA]. The aqueous solution is taken as infinitely dilute, where the activity of water is one, and so water does not appear in the equilibrium constant. The units of concentration will usually be mol/litre.

    Example: The ionization constant of the acid acetic acid, CH3COOH(aq), is written as Ka = [H3O+][CH3COO-]/[CH3COOH]. In dilute aqueous solution it has the approximate value of 2 x 10-5 in molar units.

    Kb, the ionization constant of a base

    The symbol Kb represents the ionization constant of a base in an acid-base equilibrium. Unless otherwise stated, this constant applies to an equilibrium in dilute aqueous solution and to the equilibrium whose form is, for an arbitrary base B, B(aq) + H2O(l) <--> OH-(aq) + BH+(aq). Therefore by definition Kb = [OH-][BH+]/[B]. The aqueous solution is taken as infinitely dilute, where the activity of water is one, and so water does not appear in the equilibrium constant. The units of concentration will usually be mol/litre.

    Example: The ionization constant of the base ammonia, NH3(aq), is written as Kb = [OH-][NH4+]/[NH3]. In dilute aqueous solution it has the approximate value of 2 x 10-5 in molar units.

    For any conjugate acid-base pair, which are an acid and a base whose structures differ by only one ionizable proton, the values of Ka for the acid and Kb for its conjugate base are related by the equation Ka x Kb = Kw, where Kw, the ion product of water, is discussed below.

    Kc, an equilibrium constant in concentration units

    The symbol Kc specifies only that the equilibrium constant shall have as nominal units, and the substances used in it shall have the actual units, some concentration units. Although the most common concentration unit is mol/litre, other concentration units are also used (such as mol/m3 for gases). Pure substances are given an actitvity of one and do not appear explicitly. This subscript does not denote any one specific type of equilibrium constant.

    Kp, an equilibrium constant in pressure units

    The symbol Kp specifies only that the equilibrium constant shall have as their nominal units, and the substances used in it shall have as their actual units, some pressure units. The most common pressure units are the atmosphere (atm), bar (1 bar = 100 kPa), the pascal (Pa), the kilopascal (kPa), and the torr (or mmHg); the latter two are older units. In engineering the pound per square inch (psi) is sometimes still used. Pure substances are given an acitivity of one and do not appear explicitly. This subscript does not denote any one specific type of equilibrium constant.

    Ksp, the molar solubility product of a slightly soluble salt

    The molar solubility product of a slightly soluble salt is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the salt in a solvent into its constituent ions. This constant is used almost exclusively in dilute aqueous solutions. For an arbitrary salt MX, the dissociation equilibrium would be MX(s) <--> M+(aq) + X-(aq) and the equilibrium constant would be Ksp = [M+][X-]. The concentration unit used is usually mol/litre. The dissociation is taken as proceeding from the solid salt (whose activity, one, then does not appear in the solubility product expression) completely to the ions.

    Example: The solubility product for silver phosphate, Ag3PO4, would be written as Ksp = [Ag+]3[PO43-]. In aqueous solution its value is about 1 x 10-14 in molar units.

    Kstab, the stability constant of a complex ion

    The (molar) stability constant of a complex ion is the equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion in a solvent from its constituent ions. This constant is used primarily in dilute aqueous solutions. For For an arbitrary complex ion MX64-, the formation equilibrium would be M2+(aq) + 6X-(aq) <--> MX64-(aq) and the equilibrium constant would be Kstab = [MX64-]/[M+][X-]6. The concentration unit used is usually mol/litre. The association is taken as proceeding from the simplest ions completely to the complex ion.

    Example: The stability constant for the tetracyanocuprate(I) ion [Cu(CN)4]3-] would be written as Kstab = [Cu(CN)43-]/[Cu+][CN-]4. In aqueous solution its value is about 1 x 10+23 in molar units.

    Kw, the ion product of water

    The ion product of water is by definition the equilibrium constant for the autoionization reaction of water with itself. This is the reaction in which water, an amphiprotic substance, behaves both as an acid and a base:

    H2O + H2O <--> H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)

    The equilibrium constant is therefore Kw = [H3O+][OH-] since the activity of water itself is taken as one. It has the approximate value of 1.0 x 10-14 (molar units) in dilute aqueous solution.

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