Name the five mountain ranges of Pakistan?
Please writhe the five mountain ranges of Pakistan
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The Himalaya range runs for about 2,400 km, from Nanga Parbat (Pakistan) in the west to Namche Barwa in the east. The width varies between 250-300 km. The Himalayan range comprises four parallel ranges, arranged by elevation and geological age.
Composite satellite image of the Himalayan range. The Tibetan Plateau is near the centre and the Taklamakan plain is visible as the lighter area near the top.The youngest of the three is called the Sub-Himalayan Range (Shivalik Hills) and has an elevation of about 1,200 m. This range is made up of erosion material from the rising Himalaya. Running parallel to this is the Lower Himalayan Range, which has an elevation between 2,000–5,000 m. The northernmost range is called the Great Himalayas and is also the oldest of the four. It has an elevation of more than 6,000 m and contains a large number of the world's highest peaks including the three highest, Mount Everest, K2 and Kangchenjunga. Much of Nepal and Bhutan lies in the Himalaya. The Pakistani states of Baltistan and Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh lie mostly in the Himalaya. A very small portion of southeastern Tibet also lies in the Himalaya. (However, the Tibetan Plateau is by definition beyond the Himalaya, and thereby not part of
2-The Karakoram Range
Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. It is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia, often considered together with the Himalaya, but not technically part of that range. Karakoram means "black gravel" in Turkish, as many of its glaciers are covered in rubble.
The Karakoram is home to more than sixty peaks above 7,000m (22,960 ft), including K2, the second highest peak of the world (8,611 m, 28,244 ft). Most of these peaks are in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The range is about 500 km (300 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside of the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 70 km and the Biafo Glacier at 63 km rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions. The Karakoram is bounded on the northeast by the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and on the north by the Wakhan Corridor and the Pamir Mountains. To the southwest lies the Hindu Raj range. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by the Gilgit, Indus, and Shyok Rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalaya range proper.
Due to its altitude and ruggedness, the Karakoram is much less inhabited than parts of the Himalayas further east. European explorers first visited early in the 19th century, followed by British surveyors starting in 1856.
The Muztagh Pass was crossed in 1887 by the expedition of Colonel Francis Younghusband and the valleys above the Hunza River were explored by George Cockerill in 1892. Explorations in the 1910s and 1920s established most of the geography of the region.
Marcel Ichac made a film entitled "Karakoram", chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice film festival of 1937.
A portion of the Karakoram, disputed between India and China, has been re-created as a scale model by the Chinese government
Most of the highest of Karakoram peaks are in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Notable peaks are:
K2 (Qogir Feng) (8,611 m)
Gasherbrum I (8,068 m)
Broad Peak (Phalchen Kangri) (8,047 m)
Gasherbrum II (8,035 m)
Gasherbrum IV (7,925 m)
Distaghil Sar (7,885 m)
Masherbrum (7,821 m)
Rakaposhi (7,788 m)
Kanjut Sar (7,761 m)
Saser Kangri (7,672 m)
Haramosh Peak (7,397 m)
The Ogre (7,285 m)
Muztagh Tower (7,273 m)
The majority of the highest peaks are either in the Baltistan or Ladakh regions. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 20,000 feet height from sea level.
3-The Hindu Kush Range
The Hindu Kush, Hindū Kūsh, Hindoo Koosh or Hindukush (Persian: هندوکش, Hindi: हिन्दु कुश) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in NWFP and Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and the Himalaya.
2.1 Eastern Hindu Kush
4 See also
5 External links
The name Hindu Kush is usually applied to the whole of the range separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu Darya (or ancient Oxus), or more specifically, to that part of the range to the northwest of Kabul which was called the (Indian) Caucasus by the historians with Alexander. It was also referred to by the Greeks as the "Paropamisos".
The origin of the term "Hindu Kush" (and whether it translates as "Hindu Killer") is a point of contention. The earliest known use of this name was by the famous Muslim Berber traveller, Ibn Battūta c. 1334, who wrote: "Another reason for our halt was fear of the snow, for on the road there is a mountain called Hindūkūsh, which means "Slayer of Indians," because the slave boys and girls who are brought from Hind (India) die there in large numbers as a result of the extreme cold and the quantity of snow." In the Persian language of the Sassanian period, Hindu referred to any inhabitant of Indian subcontinent (Hindustan), or Hind, rather than to followers of Hinduism as it does now. At that time inhabitants of India were mostly Hindu or Buddhist.
There are others who consider this origin to be a "folk etymology", and put forward alternate possibilities for its origin:
that the name is a corruption of Caucasus Indicus, a name by which the Hindu Kush range was known in the ancient world after the its conquest by Alexander the Great in the Fourth Century BC. Greek rule in the Hindu Kush region lasted over three centuries, and was followed by the rule of a dynasty known, significantly, as the Kushan. In its early period, the Kushan Empire had its capital near modern-day Kabul. The Kushans lost the Hindu Kush and became an Indian kingdom. Later, when the Hindu Kush region became part of the Sassanian Empire, it was ruled by a satrap known as the Kushan-shah (ruler of Kushan). A Fourth century CE Hebrew book, the Talmudic tractate of Megillah, uses the term "Kush Hodu" (Indian Kush), possibly a translation from the Persian words ("Hindu Kush") meaning "Indian Kush".
In modern Persian, the word "Kush" is derived from the verb Kushtan - to defeat, kill, or subdue. This could be interpreted as a memorial to the Indian captives who perished in the mountains while being transported to Central Asian slave markets.
that the name refers to the last great 'killer' mountains to cross when moving between the Afghan plateau and the Indian subcontinent, named after the toll it took on anyone crossing them.
that the name is a corruption of Hindu Koh, from the (modern) Persian word Kuh, meaning mountain. Rennell, writing in 1793, refers to the range as the "Hindoo-Kho or Hindoo-Kush".
that the name means Mountains of India or Mountains of the Indus (from the Indus River, the largest river in Pakistan) in some of the Iranian languages that are still spoken in the region; that furthermore, many peaks, mountains, and related places in the region have "Kosh" or "Kush" in their names.
that the name is a posited Avestan appellation meaning "water mountains."
that the name is a corruption of Hind-o Kushan, containing the name of the Kushan dynasty that once ruled this region for more than three centuries.
The mountain peaks in the eastern part of Afghanistan reach more than 7,000 metres. The highest, in Pakistan, is Tirich Mir at 7,705 m (cf. Mount Everest in Nepal which stands 8,850 m high). The Pamir mountains, which Afghans refer to as the "Roof of the World", extend into Tajikistan, China and Kashmir.
The Hindu Kush occupy the lower left centre of this satellite image.The mountains of the Hindu Kush system diminish in height as they stretch westward: toward the middle, near Kabul, they extend from 4,500 to 6,000 meters; in the west, they attain heights of 3,500 to 4,000 meters. The average altitude of the Hindu Kush is 4,500 meters. The Hindu Kush system stretches about 966 kilometers laterally, and its median north-south measurement is about 240 kilometers. Only about 600 kilometers of the Hindu Kush system is called the Hindu Kush mountains. The rest of the system consists of numerous smaller mountain ranges including the Koh-e Baba, Salang, Koh-e Paghman, Spin Ghar (also called the eastern Safid Koh), Suleiman Range, Siah Koh, Koh-e Khwaja Mohammad and Selseleh-e Band-e Turkestan. The western Safid Koh, the Siah Band and Doshakh are commonly referred to as the Paropamisus by western scholars.
Rivers that flow from the mountain system include the Helmand River, the Hari Rud and the Kabul River.
Numerous high passes ("kotal") transect the mountains, forming a strategically important network for the transit of caravans. The most important mountain pass is the Kotal-e Salang (3,878 m); it links Kabul and points south to northern Afghanistan. The completion of a tunnel within this pass in 1964 reduced travel time between Kabul and the north to a few hours. Previously access to the north through the Kotal-e Shibar (3,260 m) took three days. The Salang tunnel at 3,363 m and the extensive network of galleries on the approach roads were constructed with Soviet financial and technological assistance and involved drilling 1.7 miles through the heart of the Hindu Kush.
Before the Salang road was constructed, the most famous passes in the Western historical perceptions of Afghanistan were those leading to the Indian subcontinent. They include the Khyber Pass (1,027 m), in Pakistan, and the Kotal-e Lataband (2,499 m) east of Kabul, which was superseded in 1960 by a road constructed within the Kabul River's most spectacular gorge, the Tang-e Gharu. This remarkable engineering feat reduced travel time between Kabul and the Pakistan border from two days to a few hours.
The roads through the Salang and Tang-e Gharu passes played critical strategic roles during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and were used extensively by heavy military vehicles. Consequently, these roads are in very bad repair. Many bombed out bridges have been repaired, but numbers of the larger structures remain broken. Periodic closures due to conflicts in the area seriously affect the economy and well-being of many regions, for these are major routes carrying commercial trade, emergency relief and reconstruction assistance supplies destined for all parts of the country.
There are a number of other important passes in Afghanistan. The Wakhjir (4,923 m), proceeds from the Wakhan Corridor into Xinjiang, China, and into Northern Areas of Pakistan. Passes which join Afghanistan to Chitral, Pakistan, include the Baroghil (3,798 m) and the Kachin (5,639 m), which also cross from the Wakhan. Important passes located farther west are the Shotorgardan (3,720 m), linking Logar and Paktiya provinces; the Bazarak (2,713 m), leading into Mazar-e Sharif; the Khawak (3,550 m) in the Panjsher Valley, and the Anjuman (3,858 m) at the head of the Panjsher Valley giving entrance to the north. The Hajigak (2,713 m) and Unai (3,350 m) lead into the eastern Hazarajat and Bamiyan Valley. The passes of the Paropamisus in the west are relatively low, averaging around 600 meters; the most well-known of these is the Sabzak between the Herat and Badghis provinces, which links the western and northwestern parts of Afghanistan.
These mountainous areas are mostly barren, or at the most sparsely sprinkled with trees and stunted bushes. Very ancient mines producing lapis lazuli are found in Kowkcheh Valley, while gem-grade emeralds are found north of Kabul in the valley of the Panjsher River and some of its tributaries. The famous 'balas rubies' or spinels, were mined until the 19th century in the valley of the Ab-e Panj or Upper Amu Darya River, considered to be the meeting place between the Hindu Kush and the Pamir ranges. Unfortunately, these mines appear to be now exhausted.
Eastern Hindu Kush
The Eastern Hindu Kush range, also known as the High Hindu Kush range, is mostly located in Northern Pakistan and the Nuristan and Badakhshan provinces of Afghanistan. The Chitral district of Pakistan is home to Tirich Mir, Noshaq and Istoro Nal. These are the highest peaks in the Hindu Kush. The range also extends into Ghizar, Yasin and Ishkoman in Pakistan's Northern Areas.
Chitral is considered to be the pinnacle of the Hindu Kush region. The highest peaks, as well as countless passes and massive glaciers are located in this region. The Chiantar, Kurambar and Terich glaciers are amongst the most extensive in the Hindu Kush and the meltwater from these glaciers form the Kunar river which eventually flows south into Afghanistan and joins the Bashgal, Panjsher and eventually the much smaller Kabul river.
Interesting fact: The jazz musician Katie Melua wrote a song called "Halfway Up the Hindu Kush".
4-The Sulaiman Range
The Sulaiman Mountains (Persian, Urdu: سليمان) are a major geological feature of Pakistan and one of the bordering ranges between the Iranian Plateau and the South Asia. Bordering the Sulaiman Range to the north are the arid highlands of the Hindu Kush, with more than 50 percent of the lands there lying above 2,000 m (6,500 feet). The highest peak of Sulaiman Mountains is Takht-e-Sulaiman (3,487 m or 11,437 feet) in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Sulaiman Range, and the high plateau to the west and southwest of it, helps form a natural barrier against the humid winds that blow from the Indian Ocean, creating arid conditions across Southern Afghanistan to the north. In contrast, the relatively flat and low-lying Indus Delta is situated due east and south of the Sulaiman Mountains. This lush delta is prone to heavy flooding and is mostly uncultivated wilderness.
Takht-e-Sulaiman (3,487 m or 11,437 feet), Takatu and Giandari are some of the mountain peaks in the Sulaiman range. The mountain range approaches the Indus river near Mithankot in Rajanpur district of Punjab
5-The Salt Range
The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock salt. The range extends from the Jhelum River to the Indus, across the northern portion of the Punjab province. The Salt Range contains the great mines of Mayo, Warcha and Kalabagh, which yield vast supplies of salt. Coal of an inferior quality is also found.Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org
- 1 decade ago
- Anonymous7 years ago
name of five mountain ranges of pakistan
- JoanneLv 44 years ago
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K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth. It is located in the Karakoram segment of the Himalayan range, in Pakistan and China, on the border between the Gilgit-Baltistan region in the Pakistan administered Northern Areas, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. Chinese authorities officially refer to K2 as Qogir; This name is derived from Chogori, "a synthetic name made up by Western explorers early in the 20th century from two Balti words, chhogo ('big') and ri ('mountain')."Other names include Mount Godwin-Austen, Lamba Pahar ("Tall Mountain" in Urdu), Dapsang, Kechu or Ketu (both derived from "K2") The mountain was first surveyed by a European survey team in 1856 headed by Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen. Thomas Montgomerie was the member of the team who designated it "K2" for being the second peak of the Karakoram range. The other peaks were originally named K1, K3, K4 and K5, but were eventually renamed Masherbrum, Broad Peak, Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I respectively. The first serious attempt to climb K2 was organized and undertaken in 1902 by Oscar Eckenstein and Aleister Crowley, but after five serious and costly attempts, no member of the team actually reached the summit, possibly due to a combination of questionable physical training, personality conflicts, and poor weather conditions — of 68 days spent on K2 (the then-record for longest time spent at such an altitude) only eight provided clear weather. Subsequent attempts to climb the mountain in 1909, 1934, 1938, 1939 and 1953 also ended in failure. The 1909 expedition, led by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, reached an elevation of 6,666 m on what is now known as the Abruzzi Spur (or Abruzzi Ridge). This is considered part of the standard route today; see the route section below. An Italian expedition finally succeeded in ascending to the summit of K2 on July 31, 1954. The expedition was led by Ardito Desio, although the two climbers who actually reached the top were Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni. The team included a Pakistani member, Colonel Muhammad Ata-ullah. He had been a part of an earlier 1953 American expedition which failed to make the summit because of a storm which killed a key climber, Art Gilkey. On August 9, 1977, 23 years after the Italian expedition, Ichiro Yoshizawa led the second successful ascent to the top; with Ashraf Amman as the first native Pakistani climber. The Japanese expedition ascended through the Abruzzi Spur route traced by the Italians, and used more than 1,500 porters to achieve the goal. The year 1978 saw the third ascent of K2, via a new route, the long, corniced East Ridge. (The top of the route traversed left across the East Face to avoid a vertical headwall and joined the uppermost part of the Abruzzi route.) This ascent was made by an American team, led by noted mountaineer James Whittaker; the summit party were Louis Reichardt, James Wickwire, John Roskelley, and Rick Ridgeway. Wickwire endured an overnight bivouac about 150 m below the summit, the highest that anyone had spent a night up to that date. This ascent was emotional for the American team, as they saw themselves as completing a task that had been begun by the 1938 team forty years earlier. Another notable Japanese ascent was that of the difficult North Ridge (see route information below), on the Chinese side of the peak, in 1982. A team from the Mountaineering Association of Japan led by Isao Shinkai and Masatsugo Konishi put three members, Naoe Sakashita, Hiroshi Yoshino, and Yukihiro Yanagisawa, on the summit on August 14. However Yanagisawa fell and died on the descent. Four other members of the team achieved the summit the next day. The peak has now been climbed by almost all of its ridges. Although the summit of Everest is at a higher altitude, K2 is considered a more difficult climb, due in part to its terrible weather and comparatively greater height above surrounding terrain. The mountain is believed by many to be the world's most difficult and dangerous climb, hence its nickname "the Savage Mountain." As of August 2004, only 246 people have completed the ascent, compared with 2,238 individuals who have ascended the more popular target of Everest. At least 56 people have died attempting the climb; 13 climbers from several expeditions died in 1986 in the K2 Tragedy during a severe storm. Legend once had it that K2 carried a "curse on women." The first woman to reach the summit was Wanda Rutkiewicz, of Poland, in 1986. The next five women to reach the summit are all deceased — three of them died on the way down. Rutkiewicz herself died on Kangchenjunga in 1992. However, the "curse" was broken in 2004 when Edurne Pasaban summitted and descended successfully, and again in 2006 when Nives Meroi of Italy and Yuka Komatsu of Japan became, respectively, the seventh and eighth women to summit K2, both descending successfully. For most of its climbing history, K2 was not usually climbed with bottled oxygen, and small, relatively lightweight teams were the norm. However the 2004 season saw a great increase in the use of oxygen: 28 of 47 summitters used oxygen in that year.
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