Who built Colorado's Hoover Dam in 1902?

I am looking to see if anyone knows who built the Hoover dam in Colorado. The worlds largest ever dam taming the Colorado river in 1902. Come all you smart *** sad buggers who actually give a toss.

7 Answers

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  • MK6
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    I think the company was called "6 Companies", and I it was built in 1931.

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    What ?

    Hoover Dam ( Boulder Dam ) dams the Colorado river at the

    border of Arizona & Nevada...Started in 1931 and completed in 1936.

    What kind of a smart *** sad bugger question was that ?

  • 1 decade ago

    i think its Harry Morrison , iam not so sure but may be its Harry Morrison who built Colorado's Hoover Dam in 1902

  • 1 decade ago

    There were hundreds of men involved from numerous fields. Not possible to name them.

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Hobbits.

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Americans built it. God bless 'em.

    But the answer you seek is here:

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/hoover/peopleevents/p...

    2nd paragraph

    .

  • 1 decade ago

    Hoover Dam

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    This article concerns the dam that borders Arizona and Nevada. For the one in the Westerville, Ohio see Hoover Dam (Ohio).

    Hoover Dam

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    Hoover Dam

    Hoover Dam

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    Hoover Dam

    Hoover Dam from the air

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    Hoover Dam from the air

    Hoover Dam (36°0′56″N, 114°44′16″W), also known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete gravity-arch dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada. The dam, located 48 km (30 miles) southeast of Las Vegas, is named after Herbert Hoover, who played an instrumental role in its construction, first as Secretary of Commerce and then later as President of the United States. Construction began in 1931 and was completed in 1936, over two years ahead of schedule. The dam is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981, Hoover Dam was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985.

    Lake Mead is the reservoir created behind the dam, named after Elwood Mead, who oversaw the construction of the dam.

    Contents

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    * 1 History

    * 2 Planning and agreements

    o 2.1 Contractors

    * 3 Construction

    o 3.1 Groundworks

    o 3.2 River diversion

    o 3.3 Rock clearance

    o 3.4 Concrete pouring

    o 3.5 Power plant

    o 3.6 Architectural Style

    * 4 Use for road transport

    * 5 Powerlines leaving the power plant

    * 6 Power distribution

    * 7 Statistics

    * 8 The naming controversy

    * 9 Image gallery

    * 10 Trivia

    * 11 References

    * 12 External links

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    History

    Before the construction of the dam, the Colorado River Basin periodically overflowed its banks when snow from the Rocky Mountains melted and drained into the river. These floods endangered downstream farming communities. In addition to essential flood control, a dam would make possible the expansion of irrigated farming in the parched region. It would also provide a dependable supply of water for Los Angeles and other Southern California communities.

    One of the major obstacles for the project was determining the equitable allocation of the waters of the Colorado River. Several of the Colorado River Basin states feared that California, with its vast financial resources and great thirst for water, would be the first state to begin beneficial use of the waters of the Colorado River and therefore claim rights to the majority of the water. It was clear that without some sort of an agreement on the distribution of water, the project could not proceed.

    [edit]

    Planning and agreements

    A commission was formed in 1922 with a representative from each of the Basin states and one from the Federal Government. The government's representative was Herbert Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce under President Warren Harding. In January 1922, Hoover met with the state governors of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming to work out an equitable arrangement for apportioning the waters of the Colorado River for their states' use. The resulting Colorado River Compact, signed on November 24, 1922, split the river basin into upper and lower halves with the states within each region deciding how the water would be divided. This agreement, known as the Hoover Compromise, paved the way for the Boulder Dam Project.

    The first attempt to gain Congressional approval for construction of Boulder Dam came in 1922 with the introduction of two bills in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The bills were introduced by Congressman Phil D. Swing and Senator Hiram W. Johnson and were known as the Swing-Johnson bills. The bills failed to come up for a vote and were subsequently reintroduced several times. In December 1928, both the House and the Senate finally approved the bill and sent it to the President for approval. On December 21, 1928, President Calvin Coolidge signed the bill approving the Boulder Canyon Project. The initial appropriation for construction was made in July 1930, by which time Herbert Hoover had become President.

    Early plans called for the dam to be built in Boulder Canyon, so the project was known as the Boulder Canyon Project. The dam was actually built in Black Canyon, but the project was still called the Boulder Canyon Project.

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    Contractors

    The contract to construct the dam was awarded to Six Companies, Inc. on March 11, 1931[1], a joint venture of Morrison-Knudsen Company of Boise, Idaho; Utah Construction Company of Ogden, Utah; Pacific Bridge Company of Portland, Oregon; Henry J. Kaiser & W. A. Bechtel Company of Oakland, California; MacDonald & Kahn Ltd. of Los Angeles; and J. F. Shea Company of Portland, Oregon. The general manager Six Companies, Frank Crowe, had invented many of the techniques used to build the dam.

    During the concrete-pouring and curing portion of construction, it was necessary to pipe refrigerated water through tubes in the wet concrete. This was to remove the heat generated by the chemical reactions that solidify the concrete. (Otherwise, the setting and curing of the mass of concrete was calculated to take about 120 years!) Six Companies, Inc., did much of this work, but it discovered that such a large refrigeration project was beyond its expertise. Hence, the Union Carbide Corporation was contracted to come on board and assist with the refrigeration part of the dam project.

    Six Companies, Inc. was contracted to build a new town for construction workers, to be called Boulder City, but the construction schedule for the dam was accelerated in order to create more jobs in response to the onset of the Great Depression, and the town was not ready when the first dam workers arrived at the site in early 1931. During the first summer of construction, workers and their families were housed in temporary camps like Ragtown while work on the town progressed. Discontent with Ragtown and dangerous working conditions at the damsite led to a strike on August 8, 1931. Six Companies responded by sending in strike-breakers with guns and clubs, and the strike was soon quashed. But the discontent prompted the authorities to speed up the construction of Boulder City, and by the spring of 1932 Ragtown had been deserted. [2]

    While working in the tunnels, many workers suffered from the carbon monoxide generated by the machinery there, including trucks that were driven in. The contractors claimed that the sickness was pneumonia and was not their responsibility. Some of the workers sickened and died because of the so-called "pneumonia". Most are uncounted on the official death list. In a court case, one of the claimants (Ed Kraus) said that the poisoning had resulted in his impotence. This was disproved after a prostitute in the pay of the contractors gave evidence. The jury failed to reach a verdict as a result, and the claim was lost.

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    Construction

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    Groundworks

    To isolate the construction site, and protect it from flooding, two cofferdams were constructed. Construction of the upper cofferdam began in September 1932, even though the river had not yet been diverted. A temporary horseshoe-shaped dike protected the cofferdam on the Nevada side of the river. After the Arizona tunnels were completed, and the river diverted, the work was completed much faster. Once the coffer dams were in place and the construction site dewatered, excavation for the dam foundation began. In order for the dam to rest on solid rock, it was necessary to remove all loose material until solid rock was reached. Work on the foundation excavations was completed in June 1933. During excavations for the foundation, approximately 1,500,000 yd³ (1,150,000 m³) of material was removed, including material that was the result of canyon wall stripping operations.

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    River diversion

    To divert the river's flow around the construction site, four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side. These tunnels were 56 feet (17.07 m) in diameter. Their combined length was nearly 16,000 feet (4877 m, more than three miles). Tunneling began at the lower portals of the Nevada tunnels in May 1931. Shortly after, work began on two similar tunnels in the Arizona canyon wall. In March 1932, work began on lining the tunnels with concrete. First the base or invert was poured. Gantry cranes, running on rails through the entire tunnels were used to place the concrete. The sidewalls were poured next. Moveable sections of steel form were used for the sidewalls. Finally, using pneumatic guns, the overheads were filled in. The concrete lining is 3 feet (914.4 mm) thick, reducing the finished tunnel diameter to 50 ft (15.24 m).

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    Rock clearance

    Before construction could begin on the dam itself, loose rock had to be removed from the canyon walls. Special men were required for the job, men called "high-scalers." Their job was to climb down the canyon walls on ropes, where they worked with jackhammers and dynamite to strip away the loose rock.

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    Concrete pouring

    The first concrete was placed into the dam on June 6, 1933. Since no structure the magnitude of Hoover Dam had ever been constructed, many of the procedures used in construction of the dam were untried. One of the problems that faced the designers was cooling and contraction of the concrete in the dam. Rather than being a single block of concrete, the dam was built as a series of interlocking trapezoidal columns in order to allow the tremendous heat produced by the curing concrete to dissipate. The Bureau of Reclamation engineers calculated that if the dam were built in a single continuous pour, the concrete would have gotten so hot that it would have taken 125 years for the concrete to cool to ambient temperatures. The resulting stresses would have caused the dam to crack and crumble away. [3] It was not enough to place small quantities of concrete in individual columns. In order to speed up the concrete cooling so that the next layer could be poured, each form also contained cooling coils of 1 inch (25.4 mm) thin-walled steel pipe. When the concrete was first poured, river water was circulated through these pipes. Once the concrete had received a first initial cooling, chilled water from a refrigeration plant on the lower cofferdam was circulated through the coils to finish the cooling. As each block was cooled, the pipes of the cooling coils were cut off and pressure grouted by pneumatic grout guns.

    The hydroelectric generators at Hoover dam

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    The hydroelectric generators at Hoover dam

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    Power plant

    Excavation for the powerhouse was carried out in conjunction with excavations for the dam foundation and abutments. Excavations for the U-shaped structure located at the downstream toe of the dam were completed in late 1933 with the first concrete placed in November 1933. Generators at the Dam's Hoover Powerplant began to transmit electricity from the Colorado River a distance of 266 miles (364 km) to Los Angeles, California on October 26, 1936. Additional generating units were added through 1961. Water flowing from Lake Mead through the gradually-narrowing penstocks to the powerhouse reaches a speed of about 85 miles per hour when it reaches the turbines.

    The seventeen main turbine-generator combinations at this powerhouse generate a maximum of 2,074 megawatts of hydroelectric power. All hydroelectric plants generate a controlled, variable amount of power as the demand for power varies during a day. In fact, a big advantage of hydroelectric power is the ability to quickly and readily vary the amount of power generated, depending on the load presented at that moment. Steam-driven power plants are not so easily "throttled" because of the amount of thermodynamic inertia contained in their systems.

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    Architectural Style

    The dam crosses the border between two time zones, the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone

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    The dam crosses the border between two time zones, the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone

    The initial plans for the finished facade of both the dam and the power plant consisted of a simple, unadorned wall of concrete topped with a Gothic-inspired balustrade and a powerhouse that looked like little more than an industrial warehouse. This initial design was criticized by many as being too plain and unremarkable for a project of such immense scale, so Los Angeles-based architect Gordon B. Kaufmann was brought in to redesign the exteriors. Kaufmann greatly streamlined the buildings, and applied an elegant Art Deco style to the entire project, with sculptured turrets rising seamlessly from the dam face and clock faces on the intake towers set for Pacific and Mountain time zones. Hoover Dam today is considered one of the finest examples of Art Deco anywhere in the world.

    The dam and powerplant are operated by the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation.

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    Use for road transport

    Aerial shot of Lake Mead and Hoover Dam showing the high-water mark of the 1983 flood season along the shore

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    Aerial shot of Lake Mead and Hoover Dam showing the high-water mark of the 1983 flood season along the shore

    The Hoover Dam also serves as a crossing for U.S. Route 93. This will change by 2008 when the Mike O'Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge is completed as part of the larger Hoover Dam Bypass Project.

    The section of U.S. Route 93 that approaches and crosses Hoover Dam is woefully inadequate, especially due to increased vehicle traffic. It is one lane in each direction, has several narrow and dangerous turns, has poor sight distances, and has the occasional rock slide. In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, truck traffic over the Hoover Dam has been diverted south to a Colorado River crossing near Laughlin, Nevada, in an effort to safeguard the dam from hazardous spills or explosions. The bypass and the bridge are intended to improve travel times, replace the dangerous roadway, and reduce the threat of an attack or a potential accident at the dam site.

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