Every state has different sizes they will allow w/o special permits. For example, Ohio does not have a length restriction on the tractor and trailer so long as the trailer length does not exceed 53'. Texas also has no restrictions on the length of the tractor trailer combo and allow trailers up to 59".Nevada restricts tractor and trailer to be shorter than 70' before special permits would be required. Tractor trailer height restrictions also differ from state to state.
Federal bridge laws are sometimes more restrictive and are a little too complicated to explain here. If you are curious, you can find all this information in the front of a Rand McNally Motor Carrier's Road Atlas.
Having said all that, your question is normal. So normal sizes are close to:
Height 13' to 13'6"
Trailer length either 48' or 53" (most are now 53')
Tractors are measured using wheel base. Wheel base is center of the front axle to the center of the rear axle.
A short, single axle, day cab (truck w/no sleeper) wheel base would be about 150 to 156"
A larger truck, twin screw (two rear axles) with a sleeper would be in the 230" range. (your "normal")
A twin screw day cab would be in the 170 180" range.