Lee asked in 科學另類科學超自然現象 · 1 decade ago

請英文超高手幫小弟我翻譯一下 急~~~ 20點

拜託~~~~拜託~~~~~~盡量白話文一點~~~急~~~

蘇格蘭科學家複製綿羊成功的消息,震驚全球。其他哺乳

類動物的成功複製,令複製人類的無性生殖技術可能性大大提高了,

赫胥黎的《奇妙新世界》裡所描劃的未來世界的圖像,已經不再完全

是天方夜談。現在,對複製人問題作出深刻的思考,在當今社會來說

有著巨大的意義。

一提起複製人類的技術,一些人往往大皺眉頭,視之為洪水猛獸

,以為非禁不可。然而,經過認真的倫理思考後,我以為這種態度雖

然也有一定的理由,但卻不是不可異議的。

一般人反對複製人類,大概不出以下幾個可爭議的理由:

首先,有人以為這種人工生殖技術會破壞人類的人格同一性。顯

然而見,這是一種誤解,因為即使一個人與其複製品的基因相同,那

只表示他們的外貌及其他生理特徵很相似,就像一般的孿生兄弟姐妹

那樣,然而,這並不表示他們的思想(人格)相同,因為後者受到許

多後天的因素影響──家庭環境、社會環境、學校教育及個人遭遇等

等。因此,兩個人格相同的人是不可能的。試設想,即使有鄧小平的

複製人,但是他如果沒有經過三起三落,他的思想與真正的鄧小平恐

怕仍有距離。

其次,也有人以為這種技術會大大減損人類個性(包括相貌、高

度等)之多樣性,甚或促成獨裁政府的優生政策。我以為,這種觀點

若要成立,必須預設人們廣泛而無限制地應用這種生殖技術。然而,

據目前人類使用其他的人工生殖技術(包括人工授精、體外授孕等)

的情況來看,發生這種情況的可能性不大。在政府的適當監管之下,

複製人類的數目有限,社會上只多了些如孿生兄弟姐妹般相似的人,

在整體來說對社會的負面影響是很有限的。

另外,有些人以為複製人的出現會破壞固有的倫常關係。我以為

這個看法雖有一定的道理,但卻誇大了複製人技術的壞影響。固然,

這種技術會令傳統的親子關係產生變化,促成了更多的單親家庭,甚

至是同性戀家庭,因為這種技術可使人不需經過兩性性交的過程而可

以孕育下一代。然而,即使在複製人技術還沒有研究成功的今天,固

有的倫常關係已不斷地在改變,單親家庭與同性戀家庭已開始出現,

並且數目日益增加。我們沒有理由說這種改變一定是不好的。譬如說

,我們尚未有充分的證據證明單親家庭與同性戀家庭的親子關係會比

普通家庭差。

還有,人們也可預見有了複製人技術後,新類型罪惡亦會隨之出

現。人們可以設想:詭計多端的罪犯犯事後會以複製人頂罪、新納粹

分子欲複製出多個如希特拉般的狂魔以統治世界、商人會將社會精英

的細胞和複製人當商品去售賣、智力正常的人想複製智力較低的人作

為奴隸等。這些設想雖然近乎天方夜談,但我們卻不能完全排除它們

的可能性。可是,想深一層,這些只是濫用了複製人技術的可能壞後

果,我們不能說這種技術本身是壞的。隨著人類科技的不斷發達,新

的類型的罪惡亦層出不窮,這是科技進步的代價。我們不能說由於有

被濫用的可能性而完全放棄新科技發展。我以為,較明智的做法,是

對新科技的應用作出適當的監管和控制。

以上,我們回應了一些對反對複製人技術的說法;以下,我們可

舉出一些支持發展這種技術的理由:

依筆者之見,這種技術的最大好處是能夠幫助不育或生殖有困難

的人士成功生育。許多數據顯示,現代社會中有生育困難的人士的數

目不斷上升。在這些人士當中,尤其是那些結婚多年,想有子女但卻

無法生育的夫婦,不育對於他們來說是極大的痛苦。所以,無性生殖

將會繼人工授精、體外授孕等技術之後成為解決他們的痛苦的另一選

擇。

除此之外,複製人技術亦可應於醫療用途。當然,我們堅決反對

視複製人為被複製者的器官補給者,在需要時隨意截取前者的器官以

醫治後者。因為,複製人也是人,依道德的考慮,我們決不可把人只

視為工具,人自身必須同時被為視為一目的。因此,我們只允許器官

的複製或者是軀體的複製,又或者是將人類的器官和肢體複製於動物

身上來作醫療用途。當然,在後一種情況下,我們亦應考慮一下動

物應有的權益,避免過於殘酷的情況。

最後,新技術亦可以改善人類的生理質素,這可以通過基因工程

,將人類的殘疾基因排除而獲致。這裡,我們所說的並非積極意義的

優生學,如果要說是優生學,這也只是消極意義的。積極意義的優生

學無疑是有違道德的,因為我們無權決定未來的人類應具有甚麼質

素和不具有甚麼質素,像納粹分子那樣。然而,希望身體健全,卻是

人類普遍的心願,我們難以設想有甚麼理由可以反對。

當然,筆者主張容許發展複製人的技術,並非是無條件的。正如

前文所說,反對這種技術的人並非無的放矢,他們擔心它被濫用的想

法是合理的。所以,在發展它的同時,政府必須對它進行嚴格的監管

和控制,否則,我們雖然獲得它的好處,但卻無法避免它的壞處。這

樣,我們就往往得不償失。

就這樣啦~~~有點多.....但拜託 幫忙翻阿

Update:

能翻多少就翻多少 盡量 拜託

Update 2:

我記得這篇文章是在某個網站上ㄉ

那個網站好像可以翻成英文

如果可以的話 請把網站給我 或是幫我翻譯

謝謝

3 Answers

Rating
  • 怡廷
    Lv 6
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Scottish scientist duplicates the news that the sheep succeeds, shock the whole world. The others nursing

    Success of one kind of animals is duplicated , is it duplicate human asexual reproduction technological possibility raise greatly to make,

    World pictures in the future drawn copied in Huxley's " wonderful new world ", already no longer complete

    The side discusses at night that it is day. Now, make deep thinking to duplicator's question, come to talk in nowadays society

    There are enormous meanings.

    One mentions that duplicates human technology, some people often greatly knit one's brows , regard it as dreadful monsters

    ,Thought that must prohibit . However, after thinking deeply in ethics conscientiously, let's think I plant this by attitude although

    Can't have the objection certain reason is but no too.

    Common people object to duplicating the mankind, the following several reason that can dispute on does not probably appear :

    First of all, someone thought that such artificial reproduction technology will destroy the human personality indentity. Apparent

    But see , this is a kind of misunderstanding , because even the genes of a person and its replica are the same, that

    Only show that their appearance and other physiological characteristics are very similar, look like general twin siblings

    If so, however, this does not show that their thought (personality ) is the same , because the latter is let

    How acquired factor is influenced - -Family's environment , social environment , school education and personal experience ,etc.

    ,etc.. So, it is impossible for two persons with the same personality. Try imagining , even there is Deng Xiaoping's

    Duplicator, but if he is it three fall to get up three, thought of him intimidate with real Deng Xiaoping

    Afraid of stilling have distances.

    還有喔!

    2006-08-20 19:52:04 補充:

    Secondly,it is too it think someone will detract individual character not human greatly the technology (include appearance of, the high

    Variety that degree ,etc. ), even facilitate the dictatorship government's eugenic policy. I thought, this kind of view

    2006-08-20 19:52:28 補充:

    If want to establish, must preserve people and use this kind of reproduction technology extensivly and unrestrictedly . But,

    Use other artificial reproduction technology according to the mankind at present ( It is pregnant including award outside the artificial fertilization , body,etc.)

    2006-08-20 19:53:07 補充:

    Situation come watch, the possibility that this thing happens is not big. Under the government's proper supervision,

    It is limited to duplicate the human figure, only many similar person like twin siblings a bit in the society,

    Source(s): 自己
  • 1 decade ago

    The Scotch scientist makes duplicate successful news of sheep, shocked world.Other breast feeds

    The successful replication of an animal, the ream replication mankind's asexual reproduction technique possibility raised consumedly,

    The hertz Xu Li of 《marvellous new world 》 the picture of the future world of the dash copied, already no longer complete

    Is a day the square night talk.Make a deep thinking to human clone's problem now, social say nowadays

    Have huge meaning.

    Mention a technique of making duplicate the mankind, some persons usually knit the brows greatly, staring at it for the great calamity

    , Thinking to forbid not can't.However, through earnest ethics thinking, I think this kind of attitude although

    However there is also certain reason, but not is can't objection.

    Ordinary people objection replication mankind, probably don't pay a the reason that can dispute as follows:

    First, someone thinks this kind of manual's growing a technique will break the mankind's personality same sex.Show

    However see, this is a kind of misunderstanding, because of even a person and the gene homology of its reproduction, that

    Only indicate their outward appearance and other physiology characteristics are very alike, being like general twin brothers sister

    That, however, this doesn't indicate their thought(personality) homology, because the latter is subjected to

    The factor of many the day after tomorrows influence--the family environment, social milieu, the school education and personal situation etc.

    Wait for.Therefore, two personal persons of space homology are impossible.Try to conceive, if ever Deng, Xiao-ping of

    Human clone, but he if didn't pass by three three fall, his thought is with real Deng, Xiao-ping perhaps

    Fear to still there is distance.

    Secondly, also someone think this kind of skill

    ㄆ知對ㄆ對

  • 1 decade ago

    這裡有很多翻譯字典,可以點進去看看!!

    http://home.kimo.com.tw/carlayeh/onlineLe.htm

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