Art Deco actually came at the end of the Arts and Crafts movement, which started with Ruskin the philosopher and William Morris in England, then it moved to the Untied States where Stickley is probably one of the more popular artists. The idea behind the movement was that the Industrial Revolution was starting in England, and craftsmen were being replaced by machines that could do the work.When the art movement moved on, it become art deco and returned to Europe, especially France (Think Erte and look at the decorative wrought iron work) and then to Spain.
Bauhaus started in Germany and it's major thrust was to improve the look of everyday things- like toaster- to make it more utilitarian and to make the item have a clean, fresh line. Paul Klee was at the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, my favorite artist Josef Albers, who was a painter and experimented with color (Homage to a Square is one of his most well known series of art), His wife, Anni Albers, was a textile designer and a weaver and did some amazing work.
To compare to contemporary artists, I think of Michael Graves who does high end work for Alessi and Target at the low end.His view is that good design should be affordable and available to all.
Lots of books in the Library- read design magazines-go to museums- Internet several of these names.
These are two of my favorite art periods.