Anonymous
Anonymous asked in Education & ReferenceHomework Help · 1 decade ago

Can anyone answer these questions on The United States Constitution?

1. When you buy a U.S. government savings bond, you're doing so under the power given to Congress to

A. regulate commerce.

B. levy taxes.

C. print and coin money.

D. borrow money.

2. Suppose you're an attorney. In a case you're presenting to a federal court, you argue that the person you're defending suffered cruel and unusual punishment. Which Amendment of the Constitution should you cite?

A. Amendment III

B. Amendment IV

C. Amendment VIII

D. Amendment IX

3. Which one of the following statements is accurate for the Articles of Confederation?

A. There was no president.

B. There was only one central court.

C. Interstate commerce could be regulated.

D. Each state could veto a presidential decision.

4. The process by which the Constitution was approved by the states is known as

A. vetoing.

B. levying.

C. ratification.

D. impeachment.

5. The governmental body responsible for interpreting the Constitution is the

A. Supreme Court.

B. Senate.

C. House of Representatives.

D. president.

6. Suppose a bill has passed both the House and the Senate. It goes to the president at the beginning of the annual session of Congress. The president doesn't sign the bill but holds it for more than 10 days. What happens to the bill?

A. It becomes law.

B. It has been vetoed.

C. It cannot become law, but it has not been vetoed.

D. It becomes law only if two-thirds of the House and Senate vote for it.

7. The original purpose of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was to

A. elect the first president of the United States.

B. revise the Articles of Confederation.

C. solve the slavery issue.

D. develop the principle of states' rights.

8. The purpose of the Constitution is presented in the

A. Articles.

B. Amendments.

C. Bill of Rights.

D. Preamble.

9. What Supreme Court case established the principle of judicial review?

A. Marbury v. Madison

B. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

C. Plessy v. Ferguson

D. Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. United States

10. An agreement to count slaves as three-fifths of a person was related to

A. the way in which population would be counted in each state.

B. the denial of African Americans the right to vote.

C. the number of Senators each state would have.

D. the creation of an upper and a lower house in Congress.

11. Suppose that a woman named Harriet Miller comes before the judge in a pretrial hearing. She's charged with stealing thousands of dollars from her employer. She pleads guilty. What are Harriet's rights under the Sixth Amendment?

A. Harriet won't stand trial but will be sentenced by the judge.

B. Harriet is guaranteed to a speedy trial.

C. Harriet's case must go before a grand jury.

D. Harriet doesn't have to be informed of the charge brought against her.

12. The man who served as president of the Constitutional Convention was

A. Alexander Hamilton.

B. Thomas Jefferson.

C. James Madison.

D. George Washington.

13. In 1786, Virginians called a convention in Annapolis to discuss problems with the

A. Articles of Confederation.

B. Declaration of Independence.

C. Constitution.

D. Bill of Rights.

14. You feel every citizen has the right to own a gun. If you argue for that right based on the Constitution, you're most likely to refer to

A. Amendment I.

B. Amendment II.

C. Amendment IV.

D. Amendment VI.

15. The New Jersey plan called for

A. a strong president.

B. abandoning the Articles of Confederation.

C. the abolition of slavery.

D. equal representation for all states in the Congress.

16. Controls given to one branch of government to limit the power of another branch are known as

A. popular sovereignty.

B. appellate jurisdiction.

C. checks and balances.

D. basic rights.

17. What was the main purpose of the Thirteenth Amendment?

A. It guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race.

B. It gave women the right to vote.

C. It overturned the Three-Fifths Compromise.

D. It abolished slavery.

18. Suppose Briscoe Cole is found not guilty of murder in a fair jury trial. Later, evidence comes to light that Briscoe may have been guilty. Under the _______ principle of the Fifth Amendment, Briscoe can't be tried again for that same crime.

A. impeachment

B. grand jury

C. due process

D. double jeopardy

19. John Quincy has been a citizen of the United States for 8 years. He is 27 years old. If John decides to run for Congress, what are his options?

A. He can run for the Senate, but not the House.

B. He can't run for the House or the Senate for at least one more year.

C. He can run for the House, but not the Senate.

D. He won't ever be qualified to run for the Senate.

20. Senator Dodd of Illinois was elected in 1998. If he decides to run again when his term expires, in what year will the election occur?

A. 2002

B. 2004

C. 2005

D. 2006

8 Answers

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Your question was:

    "Can anyone answer these questions on The United States Constitution?"

    The only corrcet answer is: Yes, I am sure someone can.

    The better question would be:

    Will anyone answer these questions on The United States Constitution?

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  • 3 years ago

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  • 3 years ago

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  • It appears that you are not looking for help with your homework but for someone to do it for you.

    These are easy questions. I'm sure if you actually took the time to listen in class or I don't know.. OPEN YOUR FREAKING BOOK you'd find the answers yourself and you wouldn't grow up to work at a job with your name on your shirt, getting by on the backs of others, because your too darn lazy to do any work yourself.

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  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

    Are you a freelance writer who would like to learn more about how to earn wonderful money carrying out what you get pleasure from? If you want to advance your creating career

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  • 1 decade ago

    Please go to wikipedia.org! It helped me get an A in govt. Also, look up the U.S. Constitution, its probably in your textbook.

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  • 1 decade ago

    I'm Australian and I can answer most of that. Why can't you?

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  • Anne M
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    Is this your final exam? Here is the Constitution in its entirety.

    [DOCID: f:sd011.105]

    From the Senate Documents Online via GPO Access

    [wais.access.gpo.gov]

    The CONSTITUTION of the United States

    105th CONGRESS 1st SESSION/SENATE DOCUMENT 105-11

    The Declaration of Independence was the promise; the Constitution was

    the fulfillment.

    ``The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for, among old

    parchments, or musty records. They are written, as with a sun beam in

    the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself;

    and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.''

    Alexander Hamilton, 1775

    The CONSTITUTION

    of the United States

    with Index and

    The Declaration of Independence

    First Edition, 1986

    Second Edition, 1987

    Third Edition (with index), 1987

    Fourth Edition, 1988

    Fifth Edition, 1988

    Sixth Edition, 1988

    Seventh (Special Limited Inaugural) Edition, 1989

    Eighth (Special Military) Edition, 1989

    Ninth (Limited Eastern European) Edition, 1990

    Tenth (Special Boy Scout) Edition, 1990

    Eleventh (Special Girl Scout) Edition, 1990

    Twelfth Edition (with Declaration of Independence), 1990

    Thirteenth Edition, 1991

    Fourteenth (HMS Rose/Bill of Rights Tour) Edition, 1991

    Fifteenth Edition, 1991

    Sixteenth (Seville Expo '92) Edition, 1992

    Eighteenth (with Twenty-Seventh Amendment)

    Edition, 1992

    Nineteenth (Reprint) 1997

    CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED

    STATES

    We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect

    Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the

    common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings

    of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this

    Constitution for the United States of America.

    Article. I.

    Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a

    Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House

    of Representatives.

    Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members

    chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the

    Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for

    Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

    No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the

    Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United

    States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that

    State in which he shall be chosen.

    [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the

    several States which maybe included within this Union, according to

    their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the

    whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a

    Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all

    other Persons.]* The actual Enumeration shall be made within three

    Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States,

    and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they

    shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one

    for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one

    Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of

    New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight,

    Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York

    six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six,

    Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

    *Changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the

    Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill

    such Vacancies. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker

    and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

    Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two

    Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]* for six

    Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

    *Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment.

    Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first

    Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes.

    The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of

    the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth

    Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if

    Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the

    Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary

    Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then

    fill such Vacancies.]*

    *Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment.

    No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age

    of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and

    who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he

    shall be chosen.

    The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the

    Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

    The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro

    tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise

    the Office of President of the United States.

    The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When

    sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When

    the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall

    preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of

    two thirds of the Members present.

    Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to

    removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office

    of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party

    convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment,

    Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

    Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for

    Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by

    the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make

    or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

    The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such

    Meeting shall be [on the first Monday in December,]* unless they shall

    by Law appoint a different Day.

    *Changed by section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment.

    Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns

    and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall

    constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn

    from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of

    absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House

    may provide.

    Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its

    Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two

    thirds, expel a Member.

    Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to

    time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment

    require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House

    on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be

    entered on the Journal.

    Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the

    Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any

    other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

    Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a

    Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid

    out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases,

    except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from

    Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective

    Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any

    Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any

    other Place.

    No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was

    elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the

    United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof

    shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any

    Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during

    his Continuance in Office.

    Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House

    of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments

    as on other Bills.

    Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and

    the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the

    President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if

    not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it

    shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their

    Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration

    two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall

    likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House,

    it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses

    shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons

    voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each

    House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President

    within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented

    to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it,

    unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which

    Case it shall not be a Law.

    Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the

    Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a

    question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the

    United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved

    by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of

    the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and

    Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

    Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes,

    Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the

    common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all

    Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United

    States;

    To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

    To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several

    States, and with the Indian Tribes;

    To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws

    on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

    To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and

    fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

    To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and

    current Coin of the United States;

    To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

    To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for

    limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their

    respective Writings and Discoveries;

    To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

    To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas,

    and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

    To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules

    concerning Captures on Land and Water;

    To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that

    Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

    To provide and maintain a Navy;

    To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval

    Forces;

    To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the

    Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

    To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia,

    and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service

    of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the

    Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia

    according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

    To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such

    District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of

    particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of

    the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority

    over an Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State

    in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines,

    Arsenals, dockYards and other needful Buildings;--And

    To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying

    into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by

    this Constitution in the Government of the United States or in any

    Department or Officer thereof.

    Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of

    the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be

    prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight

    hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such

    Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

    The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended,

    unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may

    require it.

    No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

    No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in

    Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to

    be taken.*

    *See Sixteenth Amendment.

    No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

    No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or

    Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall

    Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear,

    or pay Duties in another.

    No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of

    Appropriations made by Law, and a regular Statement and Account of

    the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published

    from time to time.

    No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no

    Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without

    the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office,

    or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

    Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or

    Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit

    Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in

    Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or

    Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of

    Nobility.

    No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any

    Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely

    necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of

    all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall

    be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws

    shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

    No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of

    Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any

    Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or

    engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as

    will not admit of delay.

    Article. II.

    Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of

    the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the

    Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen

    for the same Term, be elected, as follows

    Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof

    may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of

    Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in

    the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an

    Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed

    an Elector.

    [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by

    Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an

    Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a

    List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for

    each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to

    the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the

    President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the

    Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having

    the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number

    be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if

    there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal

    Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately

    chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a

    Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House

    shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the

    President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation

    from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall

    consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States,

    and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.

    In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person

    having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the

    Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal

    Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]*

    *Changed lay the Twelfth Amendment.

    The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and

    the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the

    same throughout the United States.

    No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United

    States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be

    eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be

    eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of

    thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the

    United States.

    [In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his

    Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties

    of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and

    the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death,

    Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President,

    declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer

    shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President

    shall be elected.]*

    *Changed by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.

    The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a

    Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during

    the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not

    receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States,

    or any of them.

    Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take

    the following Oath or Affirmation:--``I do solemnly swear (or affirm)

    that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United

    States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and

    defend the Constitution of the United States.''

    Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army

    and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several

    States, when called into the actual Service of the United States;

    he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in

    each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the

    Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant

    Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except

    in Cases of Impeachment.

    He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the

    Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present

    concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent

    of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and

    Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the

    United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for,

    and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest

    the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the

    President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

    The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may

    happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which

    shall expire at the End of their next Session.

    Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress

    Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their

    Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;

    he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of

    them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the

    Time of Adjoumment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall

    think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers;

    he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall

    Commission all the Officers of the United States.

    Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of

    the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for,

    and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and

    Misdemeanors.

    Article. III.

    Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested

    in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may

    from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme

    and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour,

    and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation,

    which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

    Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and

    Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States,

    and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to

    all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to

    all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to

    which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two

    or more States;--[between a State and Citizens of another State;--]*

    between Citizens of different States,-- between Citizens of the same

    State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, [and between

    a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or

    Subjects.]*

    *Changed by the Eleventh Amendment.

    In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and

    Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court

    shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before

    mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction,

    both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such

    Regulations as the Congress shall make.

    The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be

    by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said

    Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any

    State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may

    by Law have directed.

    Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in

    levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them

    Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on

    the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession

    in open Court.

    The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason,

    but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or

    Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

    Article. IV.

    Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to

    the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other

    State; And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner

    in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and

    the Effect thereof.

    Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all

    Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

    A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime,

    who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on

    Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled,

    be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of

    the Crime.

    [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws

    thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or

    Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but

    shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or

    Labour may be due.]*

    *Changed by the Thirteenth Amendment.

    Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this

    Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the

    Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the

    Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the

    Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of

    the Congress.

    The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful

    Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property

    belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution

    shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United

    States, or of any particular State.

    Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in

    this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each

    of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature,

    or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened)

    against domestic Violence.

    Article. V.

    The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it

    necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on

    the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several

    States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which,

    in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as

    Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of

    three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three

    fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may

    be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may

    be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall

    in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth

    Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its

    Consent, shall be deprived of it's equal Suffrage in the Senate.

    Article. VI.

    All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the

    Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United

    States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

    This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be

    made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be

    made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme

    Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby,

    any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary

    notwithstanding.

    The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members

    of the several State Legislatures and all executive and judicial

    Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall

    be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but

    no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any

    Office or public Trust under the United States.

    Article. VII.

    The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be

    sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the

    States so ratifying the Same.

    done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present

    the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand

    seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United

    States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto

    subscribed our Names,

    G . Washington--Presid .

    and deputy from Virginia

    New Hampshire John Langdon

    Nicholas Gilman

    Massachusetts Nathaniel Gorham

    Rufus King

    Connecticut Wm. Saml. Johnson

    Roger Sherman

    ¡

    New York Alexander Hamilton

    New Jersey Wil: Livingston

    David Brearley

    Wm. Paterson

    Jona: Dayton

    Pennsylvania B Franklin

    Thomas Mifflin

    Robt Morris

    Geo. Clymer

    Thos. FitzSimons

    Jared Ingersoll

    James Wilson

    Gouv Morris

    Delaware Geo: Read

    Gunning Bedford jun

    John Dickinson

    Richard Bassett

    Jaco: Broom

    Maryland James McHenry

    Dan of St Thos. Jenifer

    Danl Carroll

    Virginia John Blair--

    James Madison Jr.

    North Carolina Wm. Blount

    Richd. Dobbs Spaight

    Hu Williamson

    South Carolina J. Rutledge

    Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

    Charles Pinckney

    Pierce Butler

    Georgia William Few

    Abr Baldwin

    Attest William Jackson Secretary

    In Convention Monday

    September 17th 1787.

    Present

    The States of

    New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York,

    New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North

    Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

    Resolved,

    That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States

    in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention,

    that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates,

    chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation

    of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each

    Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice

    thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Resolved, That it

    is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of

    nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States

    in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors should be

    appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day

    on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and

    the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution.

    That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and

    the Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet

    on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit

    their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution

    requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled,

    that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and

    Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the

    Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the

    Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress,

    together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute

    this Constitution.

    By the unanimous Order of the Convention

    Go. WASHINGTON--Presidt.

    W. JACKSON Secretary.

    *Congress OF THE United States

    begun and held at the City of New-York,

    on Wednesday the fourth of March,

    one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine

    THE Conventions of a number of the States; having at the time of

    their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to

    prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further

    declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending

    the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure

    the beneficent ends of its institution:

    RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United

    States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses

    concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures

    of the several States, as Amendments to the Constitution of the United

    States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of

    the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part

    of the said Constitution; viz.t.

    ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the

    United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the

    Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of

    the original Constitution. . . .

    FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG

    Speaker of the House of Representatives.

    JOHN ADAMS, Vice-President of the United States,

    and President of the Senate.

    ATTEST,

    JOHN BECKLEY, Clerk of the House of Representatives.

    SAM. A. OTIS Secretary of the Senate.

    *On September 25, 1789, Congress transmitted to the state legislatures

    twelve proposed amendments, two of which, having to do with

    Congressional representation and Congressional pay, were not adopted.

    The remaining ten amendments became the Bill of Rights.

    AMENDMENTS

    TO THE CONSTITUTION

    OF THE

    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Amendment I.*

    *The first ten Amendments (Bill of Rights) were ratified effective

    December 15, 1791.

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,

    or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom

    of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably

    to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

    Amendment II.

    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free

    State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be

    infringed.

    Amendment III.

    No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house,

    without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner

    to be prescribed by law.

    Amendment IV.

    The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,

    papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,

    shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable

    cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing

    the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

    Amendment V.

    No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise

    infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand

    Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the

    Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor

    shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in

    jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case

    to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or

    property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be

    taken for public use without just compensation.

    Amendment VI.

    In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to

    a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and

    district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district

    shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of

    the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the

    witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining

    witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for

    his defence.

    Amendment VII.

    In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed

    twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and

    no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court

    of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

    Amendment VIII.

    Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed,

    nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    Amendment IX.

    The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be

    construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    Amendment X.

    The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,

    nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States

    respectively, or to the people.

    Amendment XI.*

    *The Eleventh Amendment was ratified February 7, 1795.

    The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to

    extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against

    one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens

    or Subjects of any Foreign State.

    Amendment XII.*

    *The Twelfth Amendment was ratified June 15, 1804.

    The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot

    for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be

    an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in

    their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct

    ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make

    distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all

    persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes

    for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit

    sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed

    to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall,

    in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open

    all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The

    person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall

    be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number

    of Electors appointed, and if no person have such majority, then

    from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on

    the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives

    shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing

    the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation

    from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall

    consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and

    a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if

    the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the

    right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth PA day of

    March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President,

    as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of

    the President--]* The person having the greatest number of votes as

    Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a

    majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no

    person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the

    list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for

    the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of

    Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary

    to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office

    of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the

    United States.

    *Superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

    Amendment XIII.**

    **The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified December 6, 1865.

    Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a

    punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,

    shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their

    jurisdiction.

    Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by

    appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XIV.***

    ***The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified July 9, 1868.

    Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and

    subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States

    and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce

    any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens

    of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life,

    liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any

    person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several

    States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number

    of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the

    right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President

    and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress,

    the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of

    the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of

    such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United

    States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion,

    or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in

    the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the

    whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

    Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress,

    or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil

    or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having

    previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of

    the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an

    executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution

    of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion

    against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But

    Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such

    disability.

    Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States,

    authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions

    and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion,

    shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State

    shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of

    insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim

    for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts,

    obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

    Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate

    legislation, the provisions of this article.

    Amendment XV.*

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall

    not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on

    account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by

    appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XVI.**

    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes,

    from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several

    States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    Amendment XVII.***

    The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from

    each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each

    Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the

    qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of

    the State legislatures.

    *The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1870.

    **The Sixteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1913.

    ***The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified April 8, 1913.

    When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the

    Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of

    election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any

    State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments

    until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may

    direct.

    This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or

    term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the

    Constitution.

    Amendment XVIII.*

    [Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the

    manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within,

    the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the

    United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof

    for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

    Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent

    power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have

    been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures

    of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven

    years from the date of the submission here of to the States by the

    Congress.]

    *The Eighteenth Amendment was ratified January 16, 1914. It was

    repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment, December 5, 1933.

    Amendment XIX.*

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be

    denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of

    sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate

    legislation.

    Amendment XX.**

    Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end

    at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and

    Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in

    which such terms would have ended if this article had not been

    ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,

    and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless

    they shall by law appoint a different day.

    Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of

    the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President

    elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been

    chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the

    President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President

    elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified;

    and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a

    President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified,

    declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one

    who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly

    until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

    *The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified August 18, 1920.

    The Twentieth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1933.

    Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death

    of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose

    a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them,

    and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate

    may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have

    devolved upon them.

    Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of

    October following the ratification of this article.

    Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have

    been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures

    of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the

    date of its submission.

    Amendment XXI.*

    Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution

    of the United States is hereby repealed.

    Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State,

    Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use

    therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof,

    is hereby prohibited.

    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have

    been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in

    the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven

    years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the

    Congress.

    *The Twenty-First Amendment was ratified December 5, 1933.

    Amendment XXII*

    Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President

    more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President,

    or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some

    other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of

    the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any

    person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed

    by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding

    the office of President, or acting as President, during the term

    within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office

    of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

    Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have

    been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures

    of threefourths of the several States within seven years from the date

    of its submission to the States by the Congress.

    Amendment XXIII.**

    Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the

    United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

    A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the

    whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which

    the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event

    more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those

    appointed by the

    *The Twenty-Second Amendment was ratified February 27, 1951.

    **The Twenty-Third Amendment was ratified March 29, 1961.

    States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the

    election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed

    by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such

    duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by

    appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXIV.*

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in

    any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for

    electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or

    Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the

    United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax

    or other tax.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by

    appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXV.**

    Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or

    of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

    Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice

    President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall

    take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of

    Congress.

    Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro

    tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives

    his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and

    duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written

    declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged

    by the Vice President as Acting President.

    *The Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1964.

    **The Twenty-Fifth Amendment was ratified February 10, 1967.

    Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the

    principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body

    as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore

    of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their

    written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the

    powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately

    assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro

    tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives

    his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume

    the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a

    majority of either the principal officers of the executive department

    or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within

    four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker

    of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the

    President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.

    Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-

    eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within

    twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or,

    if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress

    is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses

    that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his

    office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as

    Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers

    and duties of his office.

    Amendment XXVI*

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXVII**

    No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators

    and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of

    Representatives shall have intervened.

    *The Twenty-Sixth Amendment was ratified July 1, 1971.

    **Congress submitted the text of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment to the

    States as part of the proposed Bill of Rights on September 25, 1789.

    The Amendment was not ratified together with the first ten Amendments,

    which became effective on December 15, 1791. The Twenty-Seventh

    Amendment was ratified on May 7, 1992, by the vote of Michigan. .

    Appendix

    THE DECLARATION OF

    INDEPENDENCE

    Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776 The unanimous

    Declaration of the thirteen United States of America

    WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one

    People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them

    with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the

    separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of

    Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of

    Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel

    them to the Separation.

    WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created

    equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable

    Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of

    Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted

    among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the

    Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive

    of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish

    it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such

    Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall

    seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence,

    indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be

    changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience

    hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are

    sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which

    they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations,

    pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them

    under

    absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off

    such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security.

    Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is

    now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems

    of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a

    History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct

    Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.

    To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

    HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary

    for the public Good.

    HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing

    Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should

    be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend

    to them.

    HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large

    Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right

    of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them,

    and formidable to Tyrants only.

    HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual,

    uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public

    Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance

    with his Measures.

    HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with

    manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.

    HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause

    others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of

    Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;

    the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of

    Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.

    HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for

    that Purpose obstructing

    the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to

    encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new

    Appropriations of Lands.

    HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his

    Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

    HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of

    their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.

    HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms

    of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

    HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace Standing Armies, without

    the consent of our Legislatures.

    HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior

    to the Civil Power.

    HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign

    to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his

    Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

    FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:

    FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any

    Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

    FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:

    FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

    FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:

    FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:

    FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring

    Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging

    its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit

    Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies:

    FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and

    altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

    FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves

    invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.

    HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his

    Protection and waging War against us.

    HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and

    destroyed the Lives of our People.

    HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign

    Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny,

    already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely

    paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head

    of a civilized Nation.

    HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high

    Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners

    of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

    HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has

    endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the

    merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an

    undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

    IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress

    in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered

    only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by

    every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a

    free People.

    NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We

    have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to

    extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them

    of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have

    appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured

    them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations,

    which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence.

    They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity.

    We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which, denounces our

    Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in

    War, in Peace, Friends.

    WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

    in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the

    World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by

    Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and

    Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be,

    FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all

    Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection

    between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be

    totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have

    full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish

    Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES

    may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm

    Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge

    to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

    DATES TO REMEMBER

    May 25, 1787: The Constitutional Convention opens with a quorum of

    seven states in Philadelphia to discuss revising the Articles of

    Confederation. Eventually all states but Rhode Island are represented.

    Sept. 17, 1787: All 12 state delegations approve the Constitution, 39

    delegates sign it of the 42 present, and the Convention formally

    adjourns.

    June 21, 1788: The Constitution becomes effective for the ratifying

    states when New Hampshire is the ninth state to ratify it.

    March 4, 1789: The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in

    New York City.

    April 30, 1789: George Washington is inaugurated as the first President

    of the United States.

    June 8, 1789: James Madison introduces proposed Bill of Rights in the

    House of Representatives.

    Sept. 24, 1789: Congress establishes a Supreme Court, 13 district

    courts, three ad hoc circuit courts, and the position of Attorney

    General.

    Sept. 25, 1789: Congress approves 12 amendments and sends them to the

    states for ratification.

    Feb. 2, 1790: Supreme Court convenes for the first time after an

    unsuccessful attempt February 1.

    Dec. 15, 1791: Virginia ratifies the Bill of Rights, and 10 of the 12

    proposed amendments become part of the U.S. Constitution.

    INDEX TO CONSTITUTION AND

    AMENDMENTS

    Article, Section Page

    Admiralty & maritime cases III,2 13

    Advice and consent II,2 11

    Age, as qualification for public

    office

    president II,1 10

    representatives I,2 1

    senators I,3 3

    voting A26 34

    Ambassadors

    Case controversies III,2 13

    President's power II,2-3 11-12

    Amendment procedure V 15

    Appellate jurisdiction III,2 13

    Appointment power II,2-3 11-12

    Appointments, temporary A17 28

    Apportionment of

    representatives I,2;A14,2 1-2,26

    Appropriations(s) I,8,9 7,8

    Arms, right to bear A2 21

    Army II,2 11

    Assembly, right of A1 21

    Authors I,8 6

    Bail, excessive A8 23

    Bankruptcy, Congress' power I,8 6

    Bill of Rights (Amends. 1-10) A1-A10 21-23

    Bills I,7 5-6

    Bills of attainder I,9-10 8

    Borrowing, Congress' power I,8 6

    Cabinet officers' reports II,2 11

    Census I,2 1-2

    Chief Justice, role in

    impeachment trials I,3 3

    Commander in Chief II,2 11

    Commerce, Congress' power I,8 6

    Commission of officers II,3 12

    Compact I,10 9 Congress

    annual meetings I,4;A20,2 3-4,29

    declaring war I,8 6

    legislative proceedings I,5 4

    members' compensation and

    privileges I,6;A27 4-5,34

    organization I,1 1

    powers I,8;A12 6-7,24-25

    special sessions II,3 12

    Congressional Record (Journal) I,5 4

    Constitution, purpose Preamble 1

    Article, Section Page

    Contracts, interference by states I,10 8

    Controversies, court cases III,2 13

    Conventions V;VII;A21 15,16,30

    Copyrights & patents,

    Congress' power I,8 6

    Counsel, right to A6 22

    Counterfeiting, Congress'

    power to punish I,8 6

    Courts (see judiciary)

    Criminal proceedings, rights of

    accused A5;A6 22

    Currency, Congress' power I,8 6

    Defense, Congress' power I,8 6

    District of Columbia I,8;A23 7,31

    Double jeopardy A5 22

    Due process of law A5;A14,1 22,25-16

    Electoral College II,1;A12;A23 9-11,24-25

    31-32

    Equal protection of laws A14,1 25-26

    Equity III,2;A11 13,23

    Ex post facto laws I,9-10 8

    Extradition of fugitives by states IV,2 14

    Fines, excessive A8 23

    Foreign affairs, President's

    power II,2 11-12

    Foreign commerce, Congress'

    power I,8 6

    ``Full faith and credit'' clause IV,1 14

    General welfare, Congress'

    power I,8 6

    Grand jury indictments A5 22

    Grievances, redress of A1 21

    Habeas corpus I,9 8

    House of Representatives

    election to & eligibility for I,2 1

    members' terms of office I,2;I,6 1,4

    Speaker of I,2;A24;A25,3-4 2,32-33

    special powers

    impeachment I,2 2

    Presidential elections II,1;A12 9-10,24-25

    revenue bills I,7 5

    states' representation in I,2 1-2

    vacancles I,2 2

    Immunities (see Privileges and

    immunities)

    Impeachment

    officials subject to II,4 12

    penalties I,3 3

    power of, lodged in House I,2 2

    reasons II,4 12

    trials, Senate I,3 3

    Article, Section Page

    Indians, commerce with,

    Congress' power I,8 6

    Inhabitant (see Resident) I,2;I,3 I,3

    International law, Congress'

    power I,8 6

    Inventors I,8 6

    Judiciary

    inferior courts I,8;III,1 6,12

    judicial review III,2 13

    jurisdiction III,2 13

    nomination & confirmation of

    judges II,2 11-12

    Supreme Court III,1 12

    terms of office &

    compensation III,1 12

    Jury trials III,2;A6;A7 13,22,23

    ``Lame duck'' amendment A20 29

    Liquor A18;A21 28,30

    Marque and reprisal, letters of I,8,10 6,8

    Men (see Persons)

    Militia (Military) A2;A5 21,22

    congressional powers I,8 7

    presidential powers II,2 11-12

    Money I,8 6

    National debt VI 15-16

    Native Americans (see Indians)

    Naturalization I,8 6

    Navy I,8;II,2 7,11

    ``Necessary and proper'' clause I,8 7

    Nominate II,2;A25 11,32

    Oath of office, federal and state II,1;VI 11,16

    Original Jurisdiction III,2 13

    Pardons and reprieves,

    President's power II,2 11

    People, powers reserved to A10 23

    Persons A14 25-26

    Petition the government,

    right to A1 21

    ``Pocket veto'' I,7 5

    Poll tax, prohibition A24,1 32

    Post offices & roads, Congress'

    power I,8 6

    Presidency, succession to II,1;A20;A25 10-11,29-30

    President 32-33

    disability A25,3 32-33

    election II,1;A12;A22 9-10,24-25,

    A23 31,31-32

    eligibility for office II,1 10

    legislation, role in I,7 5

    Article, Section Page

    President--Continued

    oath of office II,1 11

    powers & duties II,2-3 11-12

    term of office & compensation II,1 9-11

    Press, freedom of A1 21

    Privileges and immunities (of

    citizens) IV,2;A14,1 14,25-26

    Prohibition A18;A21 28,30

    Property, taking for public use A5 22

    Punishments, cruel and

    unusual A8 23

    Race A15 27

    Ratification of Constitution V;VII 15,16

    Religion, freedom of A1 21

    Religious oaths VI 16

    Resident (see Inhabitant) II,1 10

    Search and seizure A4 22

    Seas, Congress' power I,8 6

    Secrecy I,5 4

    Self-incrimination A5 22

    Senate

    election to & eligibility for I,3 3

    equal representation of states V 15

    officers I,3 3

    President of I,3;A12 3,24-25

    President of, pro tempore I,3;A25,3-4 3,32-33

    special powers

    impeachment trials I,3 3

    Presidential appointments II,2 11-12

    treaties II,2 11-12

    terms of office I,3;I,6 2,4

    vacancies A17 27-28

    Slavery, prohibition A13;A14,4 25,26-27

    Soldiers, quartering of A3 21

    Speech, freedom of A1 21

    Spending, Congress' power I,8 6

    State of Union message II,3 12

    States

    and federal elections I,4 3

    formation & admission to

    Union IV,3 14

    powers requiring consent of

    Congress I,10 8-9

    powers reserved to A10 23

    protection against invasion,

    violence IV,4 15

    republican form of

    government guaranteed IV,4 15

    suits against III,2;A11 13,23-24

    Articles, Section Page

    Sundays I,7 5

    Supreme law of the land

    (Constitution) VI 15-16

    Taxing power, in general I,7-8 5-6

    direct taxes prohibited I,9 8

    income taxes permitted A16 27

    Territories IV,3 14-15

    Titles of nobility I,9 8

    Treason III,3 13

    Treaty(ies) I,10;II,2; 8,11,13

    III,2;VI 15-16

    Trial I,3;III,2; 3,13,22,23

    A6;A7

    Veto, President's power I,7 5

    Vice-Presidency, succession to A20;A25 29-30,32-33

    Vice-President

    conditons for assuming

    Presidency II,1;A20;A25 10,29-30

    32-33

    declaring President disabled,

    role in A25,4 33

    Senate, role in I,3;A12 3,24-25

    term of office II,1 9

    Voting rights A14;A24 25-27,32

    blacks, former slaves A15,1 27

    eighteen-years-old A26 34

    women A19 29

    War powers (see Congress,

    declaring war powers;

    President, powers & duties;

    States, protection against

    invasion)

    Warrants A4 22

    Weights and measures

    standards of I,8 6

    Women (see Persons)

    ``...a constitution, intended to endure for ages to come, and

    consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs.''

    John Marshall

    At the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin

    was asked, ``What have you wrought?'' He answered,

    ``...a Republic, if you can keep it.''

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