- hulachenLv 51 decade agoFavorite Answer
Behavior of picketed circus elephants馬戲團的大象
The behavior of 14 female Asian Elephas maximus and 3 female African Loxodonta africana elephants who performed two shows each day with a circus that traveled to a new location 40 to 250 km from the previous day’s lot daily was studied. When not performing or working, the elephants were picketed in the traditional fashion in two separate groups of 8 and 9 elephants each. While they were picketed, a separate camera and time-lapse recorder videotaped the behavior of members of each group for four ;8-h periods during the 1995 season, and three 24-h periods during 1996 season. The behavior of each member of the focal groups was recorded at 5-min intervals. In 1995, stereotypic weaving accounted for 15.9% range 0.0 to 41.0% , and head bobbing accounted for 2.8% range: 0.0 to 14.5% of observations in eight of the elephants. In 1996, stereotypic weaving accounted for 14.3% range: 0.0 to 33.2% and head bobbing accounted for 2.9% range: 0.0 to 33.0% of observations in 12 of the elephants. The behavior of individual picketed elephants in 1995 was highly correlated ranging from rs0.78 to 0.83, P-0.001 with their behavior patterns in 1996, despite season and location differences. The elephants spent an average of 33"1.2% of observations eating in 1996. Stereotypic behavior increased in the 15-min period immediately prior to water, performances and hay, when compared to their frequency during the three preceding 15-min periods indicating ‘anticipation’ of water and performances, and a lack of substrate to manipulate or eat in regards to hay. Time the elephants spent off the picket line performing, working, giving rides, etc. tended to be negatively correlated with weaving rsy0.48, Ps0.12, Ns12 . q1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.