Cognitive strategy instruction has gained in acceptance in recent years, especially for children at risk for failure in mathematics (Montague, 1997). Many of the children who perform poorly in arithmetic computation, for example, are often deficit in both the knowledge of arithmetic facts as well the problem-solving skills that are important for success (Das, Naglieri, & Kirby, 1994). Direct instruction of the basic skills required to be successful is commonly available, but some children also perform poorly because they do not apply appropriate methods when problem solving (Kirby & Williams, 1991; Montague, 1997). Poor problem solving involves failure to organize the math, inadequate reflection on the best procedures used, difficulty analyzing the demands of the problem, and failure to carefully monitor and check the work. Good use of these mathematical problem-solving activities is related to instruction as well as the child\'s cognitive characteristics (Naglieri & Ashman, 1999).
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認知策略教育近年來得到認同，特別是小孩在數理能力障礙的風險性上(Montague, 1997)。舉例來說，許多孩童的數學計算能力表現不佳，通常都是在計算的知識及解題技巧上有所不足，而這對於具備良好的計算能力是至關重要的(Das, Naglieri, & Kirby, 1994)。直接教導良好計算能力所需的基本技巧是很普遍的作法，但一些孩童仍然表現不佳，原因是他們在解題時不懂得去運用適當的方法(Kirby & Williams, 1991; Montague, 1997)。解題障礙包括了無法理解題目、無法運用公式、無法分析題目所要問的、並且無法小心地檢查及驗算。而能夠善用這些解題方法正和教導方式及孩童的認知特性有很大的關係(Naglieri & Ashman, 1999)。