晏裴 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

管理學請幫我翻譯成中文

Positive reinforcement, a method of strengthening behavior, is a reward or a positive outcome after a desired behavior is performed. When a manager observes an employee doing an especially good job and offers praise, that praise serves to reinforce the behavior of good work. Other positive reinforcers in organizations include pay raises, promotions, and awards. Employees who work at General Electric’s customer service center receive clothing, sporting goods, and even trips to Disney World as rewards for outstanding performance. The other method of strengthening desired behavior is through avoidance. An employee may come to work on time to avoid a reprimand. In this instance, the employee is motivated to perform the behavior of punctuality to avoid an unpleasant consequence that is likely to follow tardiness.

Punishment is used by some managers to weaken undesired behaviors. When an employee is loafing, coming to work late, doing poor work, or interfering with the work of others, the manager might resort to reprimands, discipline, or fines. The assumption is that the unpleasant consequence will reduce the likelihood that the employee will choose that particular behavior again. Given the counterproductive side effects of punishment (such as resentment and hostility), it is often advisable to use the other kinds of reinforcement instead, whenever possible. Extinction can also be used to weaken behavior, especially behavior that has previously been rewarded. When an employee tells an off-color joke and the boss laughs, that laughter reinforces the behavior, and the employee may continue to tell off-color jokes. By simply ignoring this behavior and not reinforcing it, the boss can cause the behavior to subside and eventually become ”extinct. ”

Update:

請問用怪怪的翻譯軟體~謝謝

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  • 1 decade ago
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    在被需要的行為被表現之後,積極的增強,加強行為的方法,是獎賞或者一個積極的結果。 當一位經理觀察做一個尤其好的工作和提議讚美的一位職員的時候,那一讚美服侍強化好工作的行為。 組織的其他的積極強化刺激包括加薪,晉升和獎賞。職員工作在一般的電動消費者服務中心接受衣服,運動商品,和甚至對於傑出的表現如獎賞的去狄斯耐世界的旅程。 需要行為的加強的另一個方法透過避免。 一位職員可能復甦準時工作避免一個譴責。 在這一個例證中,職員被刺激表現準時的行為避免可能跟隨慢的不愉快的結果。

    處罰被一些經理使用削弱不想要的行為。 當一位職員正在游手好閒的時候,來晚工作,做貧窮的工作,或干擾其它的工作,經理可能訴諸譴責,紀律或罰款。 假定是不愉快的結果將減少再一次職員將選擇那特別的行為的可能。給處罰 (像是怨恨和敵意)的反效果副作用,它時常是適當改為使用增強的其他類型,無論何時可能的。 滅絕也能用來削弱行為,尤其先前已經被獎賞的行為。當一位職員說一個下流的笑話和老板笑的時候,笑強化行為,和職員可能繼續說下流的笑話。 藉由只是不理睬這一行為和不強化它,老板能導致行為平息而且最後變成”熄滅的。 ”

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  • 1 decade ago

    在要求的行為被執行之后,積極的加固,一種加強行為的方法,是一份報酬或者一種確定的結果。 一經理觀察一雇員做一特別好工作並且提供什麼時候稱揚,稱揚能加強好工作的行為。 在組織的其他確定的加固件包括增加工資,提升,並且授予。 在一般的Electric s 用戶服務中心工作的雇員為未償付的性能收到衣服,體育用品和甚至狄斯耐樂園的旅行作為報酬。 加強的其它方法想要行為是透過避免。 一個雇員可能準時來上班避免一種訓斥。 在這種情況下,雇員被促進執行準時的行為避免很可能跟隨拖拉的一個不愉快的結果。

    一些經理使用處罰減弱不想要的行為。 當一個雇員遊蕩時, 來上班晚,做糟糕工作,或者干擾其它人的工作,經理可能求助訓斥,紀律或者罰款。 假定是不愉快的結果將降低雇員將再次選擇那特別的行為的可能。 給處罰(例如忿恨和敵對)的起反作用的副作用, 任何可能的情況下,改為使用其他類加固是經常明智的。 滅絕也能用來減弱以前已經被獎賞了的行為,特別是行為。 當一個雇員告訴一個下流的笑話和頭家笑時,笑加強行為,並且雇員可能繼續告訴下流的笑話。 透過僅僅忽視這行為並且不加強它,頭家能引起行為下降並且最終成為〃extinct。 〃

    我番出來是這樣= =||不敢說一定是正確的= =||

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