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? asked in 科學化學 · 2 decades ago

化學原料特性之問題

試問下列化學原料之1.特性以及2.常用處,3.危險性。

1. 環乙酮

2. 三氯甲烷

3. N-環己基甲胺; N-甲基環己胺

4. N-甲基苯胺

1 Answer

Rating
  • Tiger
    Lv 5
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    1. 環乙酮 or 環己酮? <Cyclohexanone or Anone>

    - 特性 ==> colorless, oily liquid with an acetone-like smell. slightly soluble in water (5-10 g/100 ml), but miscible with the most common organic solvents.

    - 常用處 ==> employed as an industrial solvent and as activator in oxidation reactions, used in the production of adipic acid, cyclohexanone resins, caprolactam and nylon 6.

    - 危險性 ==> harmful

    為無色或微黃色透明液體,有強烈的 刺激臭,20℃時的比重為0.9478,熔點為負16.4℃,沸點155.6℃,微溶於水,溶於丙酮、乙醚 等有機溶劑。環己酮可用於醋酯纖維和氯綸纖維(聚氯乙烯)等作溶解試驗法的溶劑。

    2. 三氯甲烷<Chloroform>

    - 特性 ==> Density and phase 1.48 g/cm3, liquid Solubility in water 0.8 g/100 ml at 20 °C, Melting point −64 °C, Boiling point 62 °C, Viscosity 0.542 cP at 25 °C

    - 常用處 ==> inhaled anesthetic during surgery (before 20 century), freon refrigerant R-22 which is replaced by Montreal Protocol, solvent, dyes, pestides, phase-transfer catalyst

    - 危險性 ==> a subset of environmental pollutants known as trihalomethanes, a by-product of chlorination of drinking water and a long-standing health concern.

    三氯甲烷為一安定、不易燃、易揮發且會對心臟血管產生抑制作用之毒性液體

    ,可燃但不易燃之物質,長時間暴露在火焰及高溫下,會產生毒性氣體, 裝載的容器也會因火災的高熱而引發爆炸。飲用經氯處理過的自來水比飲用井水的人更容易罹患癌症。主要原因據說是 自來水中所含約三氯甲烷( choroform )之故。

    3. N-環己基甲胺; N-甲基環己胺<dimethylcyclohexylamine or DMCHA>

    - 特性 ==> colorless liquid, decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes including nitrogen oxides, a medium strong base, can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion,

    - 常用處 ==>rigid foams, insulation foams, including spray, slabstock, board laminate and refrigeration formulations, also used in rigid foam furniture frame and decorative parts manufacturing. a good catalyst

    - 危險性 ==> corrosive to the skin, the eyes and the respiratory tract.

    4. N-甲基苯胺<2,3-dimethylaniline, o-xylidine, 2,3-xylylamine, 2,3-dimethylphenylamine>

    - 特性 ==> brown liquid, boiling point: 221 - 222 C, density (g cm-3): 0.993, flash point: 96 C and water solubility: slight

    - 常用處 ==> 染料製造之中間體

    - 危險性 ==> 化學致癌物 (24種致癌芳香胺的偶氮染料之一)

    Source(s): from Tiger & wikipedia.com
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