Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

請英文達人~幫幫忙吧

INTRODUCTION

Dental calculus appearance and formation are not

well understood yet. A well-known theory of calculus

formation1 considers that precipitation of calcium salts

from supersaturated saliva is a result of an increased

pH caused by the loss of carbon dioxide from saliva.

The colloidal precipitation2 theory assumes that colloidal

substances in saliva become viscous and form

the matrix for the precipitation of calculus. Apparently,

the bacterial presence plays an important role

through chemical and enzymatic actions.3 Also, external

factors like dietary, salubrity, and hygienic habits,

among others, which vary from one individual to

other, act on calculus release. Probably a combination

of all these issues mediates in calculus appearance. In

addition, an individual dependence exists because

two different subjects with similar healthy status, in

the same environment, can have a very different

proneness to form calculus. Similar to the mechanisms

of calculus appearance, the structural phase changes

during calculus maturation are not well known. Understanding

these phase changes and the actions of

the agents that participate in them would contribute to

understand the mineralization processes and gather

the problem of calculus inhibition.

Dental calculus on teeth consists mainly of four

different calcium phosphate4 phases: hydroxyapatite

[Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2], brushite (CaHPO4 2H2O), whitlockite

or tricalcium phosphate [(Ca,Mg)3 (PO4)2], and

octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)65H2O). From a

thermodynamics point of view, a system where several

phases coexist, as is the case of calculus, is a

complicated issue in physics. In addition, these crystals

can incorporate and exchange anions and cations

with the liquid media (saliva, plaque, and crevicular

fluids), which are rich in ions. Hydroxyapatite (HA)

allows the substitution of many ions (K, Na, Mg2,

F, Cl, CO3

2, HPO4

2, etc.),

1 Answer

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  • 1 decade ago
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    是要翻國文嗎??

    如果是要翻國文的話..↓

    介紹

    牙齒的微積分出現和形成不是

    清楚地理解。 一個微積分的著名的理論

    formation1 考慮鈣鹽的那降雨

    從supersaturated中唾液是一個增加的結果

    從唾液二氧化碳的損失引起的pH值。

    膠狀的precipitation2 理論假裝那種膠體

    以唾液的物質變得黏性和形式

    微積分的降雨的基體。 顯然,

    細菌的存在起重要作用

    透過化學和 催行動。 3也,外部

    象飲食,salubrity 和衛生的習慣一樣的原素,

    及其他,這從一個人變化

    其他,按照微積分釋放行動。 或許結合

    所有這些問題中,在微積分出現方面調停。 在裡

    增加,一個個別的表達式存在因為

    兩不同主題與一起相似健康地位,在方面

    相同環境,罐頭喝一不同

    傾向形成微積分。 類似于機製

    微積分出現,架構上的相位變化

    在微積分期間成熟不眾所周知。 理解

    這些種相位變化和行動

    參加他們的代理人給投稿

    理解礦化作用過程和收集

    微積分抑制的問題。

    在牙齒上的牙齒的微積分主要由4 組成

    不同的鈣phosphate4 階段︰ hydroxyapatite

    [Ca10(PO4)6(噢)2 ],bru *****e(CaHPO4 2H 2O),whitlockite

    或者tricalcium磷酸鹽 [(Ca,毫克)3(PO4)2 ],並且

    octacalcium磷酸鹽(Ca8H2(PO4)65H 2O)。 根據A

    熱力學觀點,一系統在那裡幾個

    階段共存,通常那樣是微積分的,是A

    在物理學方面的錯綜複雜的問題。 另外,這些水晶

    能合併並且交換陰離子和陽離子

    由於液體媒介(唾液,飾板,和crevicular

    流體),這富有離子。 Hydroxyapatite(哈)

    允許很多離子的代替(K,鈉,Mg2,

    F,Cl,CO3

    2,HPO4

    2,等等),

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