Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago


In Berlin (1924-33) he worked briefly for the directors Max Reinhardt and Erwin Piscator, but mainly with his own group of associates. With the composer Kurt Weill (q.v.) he wrote the satirical, successful ballad opera Die Dreigroschenoper (1928; The Threepenny Opera) and the opera Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (1930; Rise and Fall of the Town of Mahoganny). He also wrote what he called "Lehr-stucke" ("exemplary plays")--badly didactic works for performance outside the orthodox theatre--to music by Weill, Hindemith, and Hanns Eisler. In these years he developed his theory of "epic theatre" and an austere form of irregular verse. He also became a Marxist.

In 1933 he went into exile--in Scandinavia (1933-41), mainly in Denmark, and then in the United States (1941-47), where he did some film work in Hollywood. In Germany his books were burned and his citizenship was withdrawn. He was cut off from the German theatre; but between 1937 and 1941 he wrote most of his great plays, his major theoretical essays and dialogues, and many of the poems collected as Svendborger Gedichte (1939). The plays of these years became famous in the author's own and other productions: notable among them are Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (1941; Mother Courage and Her Children), a chronicle play of the Thirty Years' War; Leben des Galilei (1943; The Life of Galileo); Der gute Mensch von Sezuan (1943; The Good Woman of Setzuan), a parable play set in prewar China; Der Aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui (1957; The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui), a parable play of Hitler's rise to power set in prewar Chicago; Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti (1948; Herr Puntila and His Man Matti), a Volksstuck (popular play) about a Finnish farmer who oscillates between churlish sobriety and drunken good humour; and The Caucasian Chalk Circle (first produced in English, 1948; Der kaukasische Kreidekreis, 1949), the story of a struggle for possession of a child between its highborn mother, who deserts it, and the servant girl who looks after it.

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  • 2 decades ago
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    在柏林(1924-33),他為那些主管短暫工作最大的萊因哈特和歐恩‧皮斯卡托,但是主要與他同事的自己的組。 由於作曲家他寫諷刺,成功的民歌歌劇的庫爾特‧韋爾(q.v.)死Dreigroschenoper(1928; Threepenny歌劇)歌劇Aufstieg und下降der Stadt Mahagonny(1930; Mahoganny鎮的升高和下降)。 他也寫他叫"賴爾-stucke"("模範戲劇")的 --不好在正統的劇院外邊的作秀的教學用書 --對韋爾,Hindemith 和漢恩Eisler的音樂。 在這些年他發展他的"敘事詩劇院"的理論和一個不規則的詩的簡朴的形式。 他也成為一個馬克思主義者。

    在1933年他去流放 --在斯堪的納維亞(1933-41),主要在丹麥, 以及在美國(1941-47),在那裡他做一些電影在好萊塢工作。 在德國他的書被燒毀,他的公民身分被收回。 他被切斷德國劇院; 但是在1937 和1941之間他寫他的大多數偉大的戲劇, 他的主要的理論的散文和對話,和大多數詩作為Svendborger Gedichte聚集(1939)。 這些年的戲劇在作者的自己和其他作品裡變得著名︰ 在他們中值得注意的是咕噥勇氣und ihre更友好的(1941; 母親勇氣和她的孩子),一出30 年的戰爭的歷史劇; Leben des Galilei(1943; 伽利略的生活); Der gute Mensch馮Sezuan(1943; Setzuan的好婦女),一個寓言玩在戰前的中國下落; Der Aufhaltsame Aufstieg des阿圖羅Ui(1957; 阿圖羅Ui的可抵抗的升高),對在戰前的芝加哥的冪集的一出希特勒的升高的寓言戲劇; 赫爾‧Puntila und sein克內克特Matti(1948; 赫爾Puntila 和他的人Matti),Volksstuck關於在脾氣壞的清醒和喝醉的好幽默之間擺動的一個芬蘭農場主的(受歡迎的戲劇); 並且高加索粉筆盤旋(首先用英語,1948 生產; Der kaukasische Kreidekreis,1949),為擁有在它的出身高貴的母親之間的一個孩子而鬥爭的故事,拋棄它, 以及照看它的僕人女孩。

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