Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 2 decades ago

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ABSTRACT

The southeastern United States is characterized as

humid subtropical and is subject to extended periods

of high ambient temperature and relative humidity.

Because the primary nonevaporative means of cooling

for the cow (radiation, conduction, convection) become

less effective with rising ambient temperature, the cow

becomes increasingly reliant upon evaporative cooling

in the form of sweating and panting. High relative humidity

compromises evaporative cooling, so that under

hot, humid conditions common to the Southeast in summer

the dairy cow cannot dissipate sufficient body heat

to prevent a rise in body temperature. Increasing air

temperature, temperature-humidity index and rising

rectal temperature above critical thresholds are related

to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield

and to reduced efficiency of milk yield. Modifications

including shade, barns which enhance passive ventilation,

and the addition of fans and sprinklers increase

body heat loss, lowering body temperature and improving

DMI. New technologies including tunnel ventilation

are being investigated to determine if they offer cooling

advantages. Genetic selection for heat tolerance may

be possible, but continued selection for greater performance

in the absence of consideration for heat tolerance

will result in greater susceptibility to heat stress. The

nutritional needs of the cow change during heat stress,

and ration reformulation to account for decreased DMI,

the need to increase nutrient density, changing nutrient

requirements, avoiding nutrient excesses and maintenance

of normal rumen function is necessary. Maintaining

cow performance in hot, humid climatic conditions

in the future will likely require improved cooling

capability, continued advances in nutritional formulation,

and the need for genetic advancement which includes

selection for heat tolerance or the identification

of genetic traits which enhance heat tolerance.

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2 Answers

Rating
  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago
    Favorite Answer

    難解

    東南方的美國被描寫當做

    潮濕的亞熱帶的和是受到延長期

    的高的周圍溫度和相對溼度.

    因為主要的nonevaporative方法的冷卻

    為了母牛 (輻射,傳導,傳達) 成為

    較少地有效的和上升周圍溫度,母牛

    成為漸增地信賴的在上蒸發冷卻

    以的形式發汗和脈動. 高度相對溼度

    妥協蒸發冷卻,因此在下

    熱,夏季潮濕的狀況公共的到東南

    乳牛,奶牛不得驅散充分的身體熱

    到防止發源於體溫. 增加空氣

    溫度,溫度-濕度指數和上升

    直腸的溫度超臨界臨界被敘述

    到減少**事件引入口 (DMI) 和牛奶產量

    和到減低效率的牛奶產量. 修改

    包括陰暗,提高被動的通風的穀倉,

    和這個加的扇子和灑水車增加

    人體熱損失,降低體溫和改進

    DMI. 新技術包括隧道通風

    正被調查決定假如他們提出涼快

    優勢. 可以遺傳學的選擇為了熱公差

    可能的,但是繼續選擇為了包括市區及郊區的履行

    因缺少考慮為了熱公差

    會結果是包括市區及郊區的易感性到熱應力. 這

    營養的必須的母牛變化的時間熱應力,

    和配給量reformulation到說明減少DMI,

    需要增加有營養的密度,更換養分

    需求,避免有營養的過度和保持

    的正常的瘤胃功能是必要的. 維持

    母牛履行在熱的,潮濕的氣候條件

    今後或許會需要改良的冷卻

    能力,繼續提升在營養的明確地表達,

    和這種必要於包括的遺傳學的前進

    選擇為了熱公差手術室確認

    的提高熱公差的遺傳學的特徵.

  • Anonymous
    2 decades ago

    摘要

    東南美國表現出的特徵是

    潮濕的亞熱帶,

    擴大了周遭的高溫和相對濕度。

    因為主要大肆宣揚降溫的方法

    對於母牛(輻射,傳導,對流)來說

    周遭溫度提升之下母牛變得沒有效力,

    當蒸發冷卻時越來越依賴出汗和氣喘的方式。

    相對濕度很高,妥協了蒸氣的降溫,

    以便在熱之下,對夏季的東南方,

    潮濕條件下讓牧場的母牛的身體格外散熱

    防止體溫一次升高。

    增加空氣溫度,

    溫度濕度索引和上升

    在臨界的開端上方的直腸的溫度有關

    關於減少沒有牛奶的問題吸收(DMI)和牛奶產量,

    產生並且對降低的牛奶產量的效率。

    整修改進蔭涼,通風的穀倉,

    並且增加球迷和灑水器身體散熱,

    降低體溫並且改進 DMI。

    新技術,包括隧道通風

    正被調查確定他們是否有降溫的優勢。

    可能選擇耐熱的基因,

    但是為更大的性能繼續選擇

    在為耐熱值得考慮

    導致很大的敏感性加熱壓力。

    在熱壓力期間的母牛變化的營養的需要,

    以及解釋減少的DMI的更改口糧方式,

    需要增加營養的密度,改變要求的營養物,

    避免營養的縱欲和維持

    正常的胃功能是必要的。

    維持母牛在熱的潮濕氣候狀況裡的性能

    將來可能會改進冷卻

    繼續的提升在規劃營養的發展,

    以及對包括需要改進的基因

    耐熱或者鑑定的選擇

    提升耐熱的基因特性。

    Source(s): Dr.eye+me
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