Newton left a mass of manuscripts on the subjects of alchemy and chemistry, then closely related topics. Most of these were extracts from books, bibliographies, dictionaries, and so on, but a few are original. He began intensive experimentation in 1669, continuing till he left Cambridge, seeking to unravel the meaning that he hoped was hidden in alchemical obscurity and mysticism. He sought understanding of the nature and structure of all matter, formed from the "solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles" that he believed God had created. Most importantly in the "Queries" appended to "Opticks" and in the essay "On the Nature of Acids" (1710), Newton published an incomplete theory of chemical force, concealing his exploration of the alchemists, which became known a century after his death.
- YyLv 72 decades agoFavorite Answer
Newton’s own remarks about chemical phenomena in the twenty-third "Query" of the Latin translation of Opticks in 1706 (subsequently revised as Query 31 of the 1717 edition of the text). There, Newton had applied to a variety of chemical phenomena the notion of microscopic forces, which would be analogous to the gravitational force but act on a much smaller scale. The notion was especially relevant to displacement reactions, for example when copper was added to a solution of a silver salt in acid, and silver precipitated. Such a reaction was to be explained by saying that the specific force of attraction between copper and the acid is stronger than that between silver and the acid, so that the silver is displaced from combination. Newton noted that the metals could be arranged in a consistent order of their relative attraction for the acid in question, and that similar orders could be constructed for other kinds of reactions. Though the phenomenon was not new to many chemists, Newton’s discussion made it plausible that it could be explained in terms of a microscopic analogue of the force of gravity. As well as discussing attractive forces in his influential Query, Newton also mentioned the possibility of forces of repulsion. He noted how "fermentation"—by which he meant any process that released "air" from solids or liquids—"seems unintelligible, by feigning the particles of Air to be springy and ramous, or rolled up like hoops, or by any other means than by a repulsive power." In what became Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton pointed out that chemical substances could be arranged consistently in order of the strength of their attraction for a certain other substance.In what became Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton pointed out that chemical substances could be arranged consistently in order of the strength of their attraction for a certain other substance.http://www.unh.edu/history/golinski/paper5.htm
2005-11-15 19:07:16 補充：
因為閣下貼的問題是英文 所以知道你的英文也很好 何況以上的化學也是國中程度 你沒問題的
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